OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation and control of a rare cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Citrobacter freundii in a hospital in southern Florida. METHODS An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted. RESULTS An outbreak of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-3-producing C. freundii was identified at a tertiary hospital in Florida in 2014. Of the 6 cases identified, 3 occurred in the same intensive care unit and were caused by the same clone. For 2 of the 3 remaining cases, the isolates had low carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations and were unrelated by whole genome sequencing. As a response to the outbreak, supplementary environmental cleaning was implemented, including closure and terminal cleaning of the unit where the 3 cases clustered, in addition to the infection control bundle already in place at the time. No further cases were identified after these additional interventions. CONCLUSIONS Although C. freundii is not a species that commonly demonstrates carbapenem resistance, our findings suggest that carbapenemase-producing C. freundii may be underdetected even when active surveillance is in place and has a potential to cause hospital outbreak.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases