Background:Sepsis often induces an immunosuppressive state, which is associated with high mortality rates. Immunostimulation may be beneficial for sepsis. We investigated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of nivolumab, a human programmed death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor approved for the treatment of several cancers.Methods:In this multicenter, open-label phase 1/2 study, a single 480 or 960 mg nivolumab dose was intravenously infused into Japanese patients with immunosuppressive sepsis. Doses were selected to mimic the exposure achieved with the approved dosage for cancer patients (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks [Q2W]).Results:Single 480 and 960 mg nivolumab doses were intravenously infused into five and eight patients, respectively. The maximum concentration after 480 mg (132 μg/mL) was similar to the predicted concentration at the end of infusion with 3 mg/kg Q2W (117 μg/mL). The concentration on Day 28 after 960 mg (33.1 μg/mL) was within the predicted trough concentration range for 3 mg/kg Q2W (90% prediction interval 19.0-163 μg/mL). Absolute lymphocyte counts and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR subtype expression levels appeared to increase over time. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 80% and 50% in the 480 mg and 960 mg groups, respectively. Drug-related AEs were observed in only one patient in the 480 mg group. No deaths related to nivolumab occurred.Conclusions:A single dose of 960 mg nivolumab appeared to be well tolerated and sufficient to maintain nivolumab blood concentrations. Both 480 mg and 960 mg nivolumab seemed to improve immune system indices over time.Trial registration:JAPIC, JapicCTI-173600.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Emergency Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine