Phase II trial of intravenous low-dose granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in acute ischemic stroke

Atsushi Mizuma, Toru Yamashita, Syoichiro Kono, Taira Nakayama, Yasuhiko Baba, Shinji Itoh, Kunihiko Asakura, Yoshiki Niimi, Takashi Asahi, Kazuya Kanemaru, Tatsuro Mutoh, Satoshi Kuroda, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Koji Abe, Shunya Takizawa

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Background Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has shown neuroprotective and neurogenerative activities in experimental studies, and our previous phase I clinical study suggested the safety and potential efficacy of low-dose G-CSF in acute ischemic stroke patients. The present phase II trial is aimed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF administration on neurological function and infarct volume, compared with a placebo group. Methods Forty-nine acute ischemic stroke patients (29 males, 20 females; 71 ± 10 years) within 24 hours after onset were recruited. Eligible patients were randomized 2:2:1 to receive G-CSF 150 μg/body/day, G-CSF 300 μg/body/day, and placebo, respectively. We evaluated clinical outcome in terms of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, the modified Rankin Scale, and the Barthel Index at 90 days after onset, together with changes in infarct volume on magnetic resonance imaging. Results We found no serious adverse event, including change in leukocyte levels, which remained below 31,000/μL, at 150 and 300 μg G-CSF/body/day. Clinical outcome scores did not show any significant difference among the 3 groups. Chronological changes in infarct volume also showed no significant difference. Conclusions G-CSF was well-tolerated at 150 and 300 μg/body/day in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, administration of G-CSF at both 150 and 300 μg/body/day neither contributed to functional recovery nor reduced infarct volume at 3 months after onset, compared with the control group. The apparent lack of effectiveness may have been due to the small sample size. A trial of combination therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and G-CSF is planned.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1451-1457
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 01-06-2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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