Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, ADCYAP1: adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1) is a neuropeptide with neurotransmission modulating activity. The associations of the PACAP gene with schizophrenia and hippocampal volume have been reported. We recently reported depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test in PACAP deficient mice. Here we examined a possible association between the PACAP gene and major depressive disorder (MDD) in 637 patients and 967 controls and found that a genetic variant in the gene was associated with MDD. The present results suggest that PACAP signaling might contribute to the pathogenesis of MDD.
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