Objectives: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a frequent complication observed in patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). BSI risk factors and incidence vary depending on chemotherapy types and prophylactic antimicrobial agents. We clarified these issues by post-hoc analysis of a prospective clinical trial cohort for severe FN in hematological malignancy. Methods: We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 413 high-risk patients and 1272 blood culture sets. Results: Overall, 356 patients (86.2%) developed FN, and 20.8% had BSI complications. Prophylactic antimicrobials did not prevent complications of FN and BSI, but the incidence of BSIs of Gram-negative (GN) bacteria was lower than in the non-prophylaxis group (23.8% vs. 56.7%). Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) scores < 20 were significantly correlated with the incidence of BSI, whereas MASCC scores > 21 were not (41.7% vs. 17.2%). The only significant risk factors were hypotension and dehydration. axillary temperatures were higher in GN-caused BSIs than in Gram-positive-caused BSIs and in patients with negative blood culture results (38.7 °C vs. 38.2 °C vs. 38.0 °C). The higher the fever, the higher the incidence of BSI and GN bacteremia. Conclusions: MASCC score and axillary temperature are strong predictors of BSI. Non-administration of prophylactic antimicrobials and GN-caused BSI are correlated. The clinical trial registration number: UMIN00010411.
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