Background: Examining the predictors of summative assessment performance is important for improving educational programs and structuring appropriate learning environments for trainees. However, predictors of certification examination performance in pediatric postgraduate education have not been comprehensively investigated in Japan. Methods: The Pediatric Board Examination database in Japan, which includes 1578 postgraduate trainees from 2015 to 2016, was analyzed. The examinations included multiple-choice questions (MCQs), case summary reports, and an interview, and the predictors for each of these components were investigated by multiple regression analysis. Results: The number of examination attempts and the training duration were significant negative predictors of the scores for the MCQ, case summary, and interview. Employment at a community hospital or private university hospital were negative predictors of the MCQ and case summary score, respectively. Female sex and the number of academic presentations positively predicted the case summary and interview scores. The number of research publications was a positive predictor of the MCQ score, and employment at a community hospital was a positive predictor of the case summary score. Conclusion: This study found that delayed and repeated examination taking were negative predictors, while the scholarly activity of trainees was a positive predictor, of pediatric board certification examination performance.
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