Prevalence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium parasites in anopheline mosquitoes

A cross-sectional epidemiological study in Southern Vietnam

Vu Duc Chinh, Gaku Masuda, Vu Viet Hung, Hidekazu Takagi, Satoru Kawai, Takeshi Annoura, Yoshimasa Maeno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Human malaria is a major threat in rural communities of central Vietnam. Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus species are critical malaria vectors in Vietnam, which transmit Plasmodium parasites. However, the entomological aspects of malaria transmission in some of the central provinces of Vietnam remain unexplored. Hence, a cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to identify the malaria vector species and the transmission of Plasmodium parasites in seven endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from seven provinces, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Binh Phuoc. The collection was conducted for four to eight consecutive nights using three established methods, indoor and outdoor human landing catches and light trap method. Nested-PCR analysis was performed to detect the Plasmodium species in the separated thorax and the abdomen of the individual mosquitoes. Results: A total of 2278 mosquitoes belonging to one of the four species of anopheline mosquitoes, An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. aconitus, and An. minimus were collected. Among the collected mosquitoes, 1398 were analysed using nested-PCR, of which, 40 mosquitoes were positive for Plasmodium parasites. Most of these parasites were detected in the samples from the thorax region, followed by the abdominal portion. The parasites were detected in both the thorax and abdomen of An. dirus. Seven species of Plasmodium parasites were detected during the analysis, of which, Plasmodium inui was the most common species, followed by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium fieldi. Out of the 49 positive samples, 12 showed mixed infections. Co-infection of P. inui with human and other non-human primate Plasmodium species was common. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium infection in An. dirus, a predominant malarial vector. Further, we showed that An. maculatus and An. minimus species also take part in malarial transmission. This might potentially lead to an alarming situation conducive for the emergence of novel zoonotic malaria.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9
JournalTropical Medicine and Health
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23-01-2019

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Plasmodium
Vietnam
Culicidae
Primates
Epidemiologic Studies
Parasites
Cross-Sectional Studies
Malaria
Anopheles
Thorax
Coinfection
Abdomen
Plasmodium cynomolgi
Plasmodium knowlesi
Plasmodium vivax
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Zoonoses
Rural Population
Plasmodium falciparum
Light

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Chinh, Vu Duc ; Masuda, Gaku ; Hung, Vu Viet ; Takagi, Hidekazu ; Kawai, Satoru ; Annoura, Takeshi ; Maeno, Yoshimasa. / Prevalence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium parasites in anopheline mosquitoes : A cross-sectional epidemiological study in Southern Vietnam. In: Tropical Medicine and Health. 2019 ; Vol. 47, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Human malaria is a major threat in rural communities of central Vietnam. Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus species are critical malaria vectors in Vietnam, which transmit Plasmodium parasites. However, the entomological aspects of malaria transmission in some of the central provinces of Vietnam remain unexplored. Hence, a cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to identify the malaria vector species and the transmission of Plasmodium parasites in seven endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from seven provinces, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Binh Phuoc. The collection was conducted for four to eight consecutive nights using three established methods, indoor and outdoor human landing catches and light trap method. Nested-PCR analysis was performed to detect the Plasmodium species in the separated thorax and the abdomen of the individual mosquitoes. Results: A total of 2278 mosquitoes belonging to one of the four species of anopheline mosquitoes, An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. aconitus, and An. minimus were collected. Among the collected mosquitoes, 1398 were analysed using nested-PCR, of which, 40 mosquitoes were positive for Plasmodium parasites. Most of these parasites were detected in the samples from the thorax region, followed by the abdominal portion. The parasites were detected in both the thorax and abdomen of An. dirus. Seven species of Plasmodium parasites were detected during the analysis, of which, Plasmodium inui was the most common species, followed by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium fieldi. Out of the 49 positive samples, 12 showed mixed infections. Co-infection of P. inui with human and other non-human primate Plasmodium species was common. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium infection in An. dirus, a predominant malarial vector. Further, we showed that An. maculatus and An. minimus species also take part in malarial transmission. This might potentially lead to an alarming situation conducive for the emergence of novel zoonotic malaria.",
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Prevalence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium parasites in anopheline mosquitoes : A cross-sectional epidemiological study in Southern Vietnam. / Chinh, Vu Duc; Masuda, Gaku; Hung, Vu Viet; Takagi, Hidekazu; Kawai, Satoru; Annoura, Takeshi; Maeno, Yoshimasa.

In: Tropical Medicine and Health, Vol. 47, No. 1, 9, 23.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium parasites in anopheline mosquitoes

T2 - A cross-sectional epidemiological study in Southern Vietnam

AU - Chinh, Vu Duc

AU - Masuda, Gaku

AU - Hung, Vu Viet

AU - Takagi, Hidekazu

AU - Kawai, Satoru

AU - Annoura, Takeshi

AU - Maeno, Yoshimasa

PY - 2019/1/23

Y1 - 2019/1/23

N2 - Background: Human malaria is a major threat in rural communities of central Vietnam. Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus species are critical malaria vectors in Vietnam, which transmit Plasmodium parasites. However, the entomological aspects of malaria transmission in some of the central provinces of Vietnam remain unexplored. Hence, a cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to identify the malaria vector species and the transmission of Plasmodium parasites in seven endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from seven provinces, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Binh Phuoc. The collection was conducted for four to eight consecutive nights using three established methods, indoor and outdoor human landing catches and light trap method. Nested-PCR analysis was performed to detect the Plasmodium species in the separated thorax and the abdomen of the individual mosquitoes. Results: A total of 2278 mosquitoes belonging to one of the four species of anopheline mosquitoes, An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. aconitus, and An. minimus were collected. Among the collected mosquitoes, 1398 were analysed using nested-PCR, of which, 40 mosquitoes were positive for Plasmodium parasites. Most of these parasites were detected in the samples from the thorax region, followed by the abdominal portion. The parasites were detected in both the thorax and abdomen of An. dirus. Seven species of Plasmodium parasites were detected during the analysis, of which, Plasmodium inui was the most common species, followed by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium fieldi. Out of the 49 positive samples, 12 showed mixed infections. Co-infection of P. inui with human and other non-human primate Plasmodium species was common. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium infection in An. dirus, a predominant malarial vector. Further, we showed that An. maculatus and An. minimus species also take part in malarial transmission. This might potentially lead to an alarming situation conducive for the emergence of novel zoonotic malaria.

AB - Background: Human malaria is a major threat in rural communities of central Vietnam. Anopheles dirus and Anopheles minimus species are critical malaria vectors in Vietnam, which transmit Plasmodium parasites. However, the entomological aspects of malaria transmission in some of the central provinces of Vietnam remain unexplored. Hence, a cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out to identify the malaria vector species and the transmission of Plasmodium parasites in seven endemic provinces of Vietnam. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from seven provinces, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Dong Nai, and Binh Phuoc. The collection was conducted for four to eight consecutive nights using three established methods, indoor and outdoor human landing catches and light trap method. Nested-PCR analysis was performed to detect the Plasmodium species in the separated thorax and the abdomen of the individual mosquitoes. Results: A total of 2278 mosquitoes belonging to one of the four species of anopheline mosquitoes, An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. aconitus, and An. minimus were collected. Among the collected mosquitoes, 1398 were analysed using nested-PCR, of which, 40 mosquitoes were positive for Plasmodium parasites. Most of these parasites were detected in the samples from the thorax region, followed by the abdominal portion. The parasites were detected in both the thorax and abdomen of An. dirus. Seven species of Plasmodium parasites were detected during the analysis, of which, Plasmodium inui was the most common species, followed by Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium cynomolgi, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium fieldi. Out of the 49 positive samples, 12 showed mixed infections. Co-infection of P. inui with human and other non-human primate Plasmodium species was common. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of human and non-human primate Plasmodium infection in An. dirus, a predominant malarial vector. Further, we showed that An. maculatus and An. minimus species also take part in malarial transmission. This might potentially lead to an alarming situation conducive for the emergence of novel zoonotic malaria.

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