[Problems of the effective energy used as a quality expression of diagnostic X-ray].

Hideki Kato, Naoki Hayashi, Shoichi Suzuki, Sho Ando, Mami Miyamoto, Nao Wakasugi, Shizuma Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The effective energy has been generally used as a method of handily expressing an X-ray quality by one numerical value. The effective energy is a concept derived from "Half Value Layer (HVL)" that is the expressing parameter of beam quality based on the attenuation of the primary X-ray by a material. When beam quality is expressed by using HVL and / or the effective energy, it is necessary to describe the tube potential, the rectification method, and the homogeneity coefficient, etc. in parallel. However, recently feelings are that the effective energy should be handled like an absolute numerical value to physical characteristics of X-rays. In this paper, it was theoretically clarified that the effective energy had a different value depending on the absorber material used for the HVL measurement. In addition, the errors when physical characteristics of the X-rays were evaluated using the effective energy was also examined. Physical characteristics, such as interactions to the material of mono-energetic X-ray, are not equal to that of X-rays with a wide energy spectrum. It is not an easy comparison to express the quality of the diagnostic X-rays, and to calculate physical characteristics of the X-rays by using the effective energy. It is necessary to design a new method of expressing the quality of X-rays that takes the place of the "effective energy."

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1320-1326
Number of pages7
JournalNihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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