Profiles of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Japanese men and women: Association with biological, environmental, and nutritional factors and coexisting disorders: The ROAD study

N. Yoshimura, S. Muraki, H. Oka, M. Morita, H. Yamada, S. Tanaka, H. Kawaguchi, K. Nakamura, T. Akune

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Assessments of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 1,683 Japanese from a population-based cohort revealed prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were 81.3 and 1.2 %, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with female sex, examined month, current smoking, lack of regular walking, higher intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and poor daily vitamin D intake. Introduction: To clarify the characteristics of subjects with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among men and women in the general Japanese population. Methods: We initiated research on osteoarthritis/ osteoporosis against disability (ROAD), a large-scale population-based cohort study, in 2005-2007. Blood examination was performed to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and iPTH levels and biochemical markers of bone turnover in 1,683 participants (595 men, 1,088 women). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, measurements of bone mineral density, and x-ray examination. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined by serum 25D levels <10 and ≥10 but <30 ng/mL, respectively. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was 81.3 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multinominal logistic regression analyses using potentially confounding variables revealed vitamin D insufficiency was significantly associated with age (+1 year, relative risk ratio, 0.98; 95 % confidence interval, 0.96-0.99), gender (women vs. men, 2.28; 1.59-3.30), residing areas (coastal area vs. mountainous area, 0.58; 0.41-0.81), examined month (October, November, December vs. January, 0.51; 0.34-0.76), and serum levels of iPTH (+1 pg/mL, 1.02; 1.01-1.03). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly characterised by female sex (20.5; 3.1-136.7), examined month (0.28; 0.09-0.95), current smoking habit (6.39; 1.78-23.0), lack of regular outside walking (3.96; 1.34-11.7), higher iPTH (1.02; 1.01-1.03) and poor daily vitamin D intake (+10 μg/day, 0.48; 0.24-0.93). Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and a low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were found in Japanese men and women, and the characteristics of vitamin D status were clarified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2775-2787
Number of pages13
JournalOsteoporosis International
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2013


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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