Prolonged incubation period of hepatitis B in a recipient of a nucleic acid amplification test-negative hepatitis B virus window donation

Takahiro Matsuno, Hideaki Matsuura, Sumie Fujii, Ami Tanaka, Masahiro Satake, Tomohiro Kinoshita, Akihiro Tomita, Yusuke Matsui, Yukari Sugiura, Yasuo Miura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: The occurrence of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has fallen dramatically due to continuous improvements in pre-transfusion laboratory testing. However, the characteristics of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection caused by individual donor nucleic acid amplification test (ID-NAT)-negative blood products are unclear. Case Presentation: A 76-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed with transfusion-transmitted HBV infection after receiving apheresis platelets derived from an ID-NAT-negative blood donation. This case was diagnosed definitively as transfusion-mediated because complete nucleotide homology of a 1556 bp region of the HBV Pol/preS1-preS2-S genes and a 23 bp region of the HBV core promoter/precore between the donor and recipient strains was confirmed by PCR-directed sequencing. The case is uncommon with respect to the unexpectedly prolonged HBV-DNA incubation period of nearly 5 months after transfusion (previously, the longest period observed since the recent implementation of ID-NAT pre-transfusion laboratory testing in Japan was 84 days). Slow-replicating HBV genotype A2 may contribute to the prolonged incubation period; also, the quantity of apheresis platelets delivered in a large volume of plasma, and/or the immune response of the recipient suffering from a hematological neoplasm, may have contributed to establishment of HBV infection in the recipient. This was supported by analysis of three previously documented cases of transfusion-transmitted HBV infection by blood products derived from ID-NAT-negative donations in Japan. Conclusion: Continuous monitoring of HBV infection for longer periods (>3 months) may be required after transfusion of blood components from an ID-NAT-negative HBV window donation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2782-2787
Number of pages6
JournalTransfusion
Volume61
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 09-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Hematology

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