Background/Aims: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of transnasal endoscopy (TNE) with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) for detection of superficial cancer in the pharyngeal and esophageal regions for high-risk populations. Methodology: Patients who previously had head and neck or esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled. Screening was conducted using TNE with conventional white-light endoscopy (WLE) followed by FICE chromoendoscopy. For observation of the pharyngeal region, the Valsalva maneuver was employed. Results: 99 patients were eligible. Six esophageal cancers were detected in four patients (4.0%). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of cancer were 25.0% (95% CI, 3.4-71.0), 97.8% (95% CI, 92.1-99.8), and 94.9% (95% CI, 88.4-98.1), respectively for WLE; 100% (95% CI, 451%-100%), 96.8% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.3%), and 96.9% (95% CI, 89.3%-99.1%), respectively for FICE chromoendoscopy. Pain in the nose and nasal hemorrhage were observed in 3 (3.0%) and 2 patients (2.0%), respectively. Following the Valsalva maneuver, endoscopic scores significantly increased from a mean of 1.1 (0.8-1.4) to 2.0 (1.3-2.6) (p<0.05). Conclusions: TNE with the Valsalva maneuver is a promising screening method for the pharyngeal and esophageal regions. TNE with FICE chromoendoscopy for detecting pharyngeal and esophageal cancer was more sensitive than WLE.
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