We investigated the role of cytokines in trimethyltin (TMT)-induced convulsive neurotoxicity. Evaluation of TNF-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 knockout (-/-) mice showed that the IL-6 -/- mice had the greatest susceptibility to TMT-induced seizures. In both wild-type and IL-6 -/- mice, TMT treatment increased glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and levels of reactive oxygen species in the hippocampus. These effects were more pronounced in the IL-6 -/- mice than in wild-type controls. In addition, the ability of TMT to induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase was significantly decreased in IL-6 -/- mice. Treatment of IL-6 -/- mice with recombinant IL-6 protein (rIL-6) restored these effects of TMT. Treatment with rIL-6 also significantly attenuated the TMT-induced inhibition of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, thereby increasing phosphorylation of Bad (Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter protein), expression of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and the interaction between p-Bad and 14-3-3 protein and decreasing Bax expression and caspase-3 cleavage. Furthermore, in IL-6 -/- mice, rIL-6 provided significant protection against TMT-induced neuronal degeneration; this effect of rIL-6 was counteracted by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. These results suggest that activation of Nrf2-dependent glutathione homeostasis and PI3K/Akt signaling is required for the neuroprotective effects of IL-6 against TMT.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 01-04-2012|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)