Flooding impairs wheat growth and considerably affects yield productivity worldwide. On the other hand, irradiation with millimeter waves enhanced the growth of chickpea and soybean under flooding stress. In the current work, millimeter-wave irradiation notably enhanced wheat growth, even under flooding stress. To explore the protective mechanisms of millimeter-wave irradiation on wheat under flooding, quantitative proteomics was performed. According to functional categorization, proteins whose abundances were changed significantly with and without irradiation under flooding stress were correlated to glycolysis, reactive-oxygen species scavenging, cell organization, and hormonal metabolism. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and β tubulin accumulated in root and leaf under flooding; however, even in such condition, their accumulations were recovered to the control level in irradiated wheat. The abundance of ascorbate peroxidase increased in leaf under flooding and recovered to the control level in irradiated wheat. Because the abundance of auxin-related proteins changed with millimeter-wave irradiation, auxin was applied to wheat under flooding, resulting in the application of auxin improving its growth, even in such condition. These results suggest that millimeter-wave irradiation on wheat seeds improves the recovery of plant growth from flooding via the regulation of glycolysis, reactive-oxygen species scavenging, and cell organization. Additionally, millimeter-wave irradiation could promote tolerance against flooding through the regulation of auxin contents in wheat.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry