Psychometric Properties of Grief Traits and State Scale for Nurses to Measure Levels of Grief

Feni Betriana, Tetsuya Tanioka, Tomoya Yokotani, Youko Nakano, Hirokazu Ito, Yuko Yasuhara, Yueren Zhao, Rozzano C. Locsin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Frequent exposure to patient deaths prompts nurses to experience grief. Unresolved grief leads to harmful consequences of nurses’ mental health and quality of nursing care. A cross-sectional study using an online survey was conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the Grief traits and State Scale for Nurses. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors measuring the level of nurses’ grief traits (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.84) and two factors in grief state (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.86). Nurses’ feelings of unable to provide good care were associated with a higher risk of grief (odds ratio (OR): 4.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–12.75), uncomfortable feeling toward deaths (OR: 11.29, 95%CI: 1.48–85.91), and emotional exhaustion (OR: 7.12, 95%CI: 1.63–30.99). Results indicated that the scale was reliable in determining the levels of their grief. Nurse managers can use the scale to identify their nurses’ levels of grief, creating opportunities to influence the resolution of the grief experiences.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOmega: Journal of Death and Dying
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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