Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the vascular responses and fates of the scaffold after bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation using multimodality imaging. Background: Serial comprehensive image assessments after BVS implantation in the context of a randomized trial have not yet been reported. Methods: In the ABSORB Japan trial, 400 patients were randomized to a BVS (n = 266) or a cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (n = 134). Through 3 years, patients underwent serial angiography and intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: Luminal dimension at 3 years was consistently smaller with the BVS than with the cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (mean angiographic minimal luminal diameter 2.04 ± 0.63 mm vs. 2.40 ± 0.56 mm, mean difference −0.37 mm [95% confidence interval: −0.50 to −0.24 mm]; p < 0.001), mainly because of smaller device area (6.13 ± 2.03 mm2 vs. 7.15 ± 2.16 mm2, mean difference −1.04 mm2 [95% confidence interval: −1.66 to −0.42 mm2]; p < 0.001), and larger neointimal area (2.10 ± 0.61 mm2 vs. 1.86 ± 0.64 mm2, mean difference 0.24 mm2 [95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.43 mm2]; p = 0.01) by OCT. BVS-treated vessels did not show previously reported favorable vessel responses, such as positive vessel remodeling, late luminal enlargement, and restoration of vasomotion, although the OCT-based healing score was on average zero (interquartile range: 0.00 to 0.00). At 3 years, intraluminal scaffold dismantling (ISD) was observed in 14% of BVS. On serial OCT, ISD was observed in 6 lesions at 2 years, where the struts had been fully apposed at post-procedure, while ISD was observed in 12 lesions at 3 years, where 8 lesions were free from ISD on 2-year OCT. In 5 cases of very late scaffold thrombosis, strut discontinuities were detected in all 4 cases with available OCT immediately before reintervention. Conclusions: In this multimodality serial imaging study, luminal dimension at 3 years was smaller with the BVS than with the cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stent. ISD, suspected to be one of the mechanisms of very late BVS thrombosis, was observed in a substantial proportion of cases at 3 years, which developed between post-procedure and 2 years and even beyond 2 years.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine