Rapid Spread in Japan of Unusual G9P[8] Human Rotavirus Strains Possessing NSP4 Genes of E2 Genotype

The Rotavirus Epidemiology Study Group

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5 Citations (Scopus)


The emergence of unusual G9P[8]-E2 human rotaviruses in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, in 2018 has been reported. During rotavirus strain surveillance in different regions of Japan (Mie, Okayama, and Chiba prefectures), G9P[8]-E2 strains were detected in children with diarrhea from all three prefectures. Here, we characterized the whole genome of seven representative G9P[8]-E2 strains. In the full-genome-based analysis, the seven study strains exhibited a unique genotype configuration with the NSP4 gene of genogroup 2 in a genogroup 1 genomic backbone: G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E2-H1. This genotype constellation was shared by the Tokyo G9P[8]-E2 strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 11 genes, except NSP4, of the seven study strains appeared to have originated from co-circulating Wa-like G9P[8]-E1 strains. In contrast, NSP4 appeared to have originated from the co-circulating DS-1-like G2P[4]-E2 strains. Thus, G9P[8]-E2 strains appear to be derived through reassortment between G9P[8]-E1 and G2P[4]-E2 strains in Japan. Notably, the seven study G9P[8]-E2 strains and Tokyo G9P[8]-E2 strains were revealed to have 11-segment genomes almost indistinguishable from one another in their sequences (99.3–100%), indicating all these G9P[8]-E2 strains had a common origin. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the rapid spread of G9P[8]-E2 strains across a country.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-475
Number of pages10
JournalJapanese journal of infectious diseases
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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