Reconstruction of upper limb motor function using functional electrical stimulation (FES)

Isao Morita, M. W. Keith, T. Kanno

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)


Functional electrical stimulation (FES) techniques progress by adopting the developments in computers and engineering, but complete functional reconstruction is not yet possible to be achieved. The attachment of the devices to the body can be complex, and training to handle FES is not easy. FES systems are expensive and their coverage by medical insurance is limited with the exception of a few systems. Hence, recognition of FES by the medical community is limited and as a result, it is not a common therapy. However, FES is the main method available for reconstruction of motor function, at present. The improvement in activities of daily living (ADL) of patients using FES may not only improve the patient's quality of life (QOL) but also reduce the burden to persons who look after them, and hence, secure a valuable work force. The medical insurance should support the use of FES and reduce the patients' financial burden. Studies and developments based on a close collaboration of users (patients and care-givers), persons involved in therapy (doctors and nurses), and manufactures (engineers and technicians) are necessary. In addition to FES, other methods such as therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) for prevention of atrophy and spasms of paralytic limbs show the therapeutic potential of neuromodulation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOperative Neuromodulation
Subtitle of host publicationVolume 1: Functional Neuroprosthetic Surgery. An Introduction
PublisherSpringer Wien
Number of pages5
Edition97 PART 1
ISBN (Print)9783211330784
Publication statusPublished - 2007

Publication series

NameActa Neurochirurgica, Supplementum
Number97 PART 1
ISSN (Print)0065-1419

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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