Purpose To investigate the regeneration of the cone outer segments in eyes after surgery for fovea-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with an adaptive optics (AO) fundus camera and to correlate these findings with the findings of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Medical charts of 21 eyes of 21 patients who had undergone surgery for fovea-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were retrospectively studied. Cone mosaic images were obtained with an AO fundus camera. Cone packing density at 2 degrees from the fovea within the previously detached area was measured 6 and 12 months after surgery. Retinal thicknesses between the interdigitation zone and the retinal pigment epithelium (IZ-RPE) and between the ellipsoid zone and the retinal pigment epithelium (EZ-RPE) were measured in OCT images. Results Cone density 12 months after surgery was significantly increased from that at 6 months (P = .001), but was still significantly lower than that of normal fellow eyes (P <.001). IZ-RPE and EZ-RPE thickness significantly increased from 6 to 12 months (P =.045, P =.033, respectively), and these values were not significantly different from those of normal fellow eyes. Multivariate analysis showed that cone density at 12 months was significantly associated with IZ-RPE thickness (P =.002), and increases in cone packing density were significantly associated with increases in IZ-RPE thickness (P =.001). Conclusions Recovery of cone packing density measured by AO was associated with structural recovery of the outer retina observed in OCT, suggesting regeneration of the photoreceptor outer segment after surgery.
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