Human transcriptomes are more divergent than genes and contribute to the sophistication of life. This divergence is derived from various isoforms arising from alternative splicing. In addition, alternative splicing regulated by spliceosomal factors and RNA structures, such as the RNA G-quadruplex, is important not only for isoform diversity but also for regulating gene expression. Therefore, abnormal splicing leads to serious diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. In the first part of this review, we describe the regulation of divergent transcriptomes using alternative mRNA splicing. In the second part, we present the relationship between the disruption of splicing and diseases. Recently, various compounds with splicing inhibitor activity were established. These splicing inhibitors are recognized as a biological tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of splicing and as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Food-derived compounds with similar functions were found and are expected to exhibit anticancer effects. In the final part, we describe the compounds that modulate the messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing process and their availability for basic research and future clinical potential.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry