Regulation of oxidative stress in long-lived lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia

Yoko S. Kaneko, Akira Ota, Akira Nakashima, Keiji Mori, Ikuko Nagatsu, Toshiharu Nagatsu

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Previously, we reported that an optimal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly extends the life span of mouse primary-cultured microglia by suppressing apoptotic and autophagic cell death pathways. The aim of the present study was to assess how these cells protect themselves against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by LPS treatment. The study was conducted in microglia obtained from murine neonate brain, which are destined to die within a few days under ordinary culture conditions. The generation of ROS was maximal after 15 h LPS treatment (1 ng/mL LPS and 100 ng/mL LPS). The expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein was significantly increased by Day 1 of LPS treatment and was followed by the production of NO. The expression of either Cu/Zn- or Mn-superoxide dismutase protein (SOD) was also increased by 16 h and Day 1 of LPS treatment. LPS did not affect the expression of Cu/Zn- and Mn-SOD proteins, nor did it extend the life span of microglia that had mutated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. The findings of the present study suggest that SODs function as a potent barrier to overcome ROS generated in primary-cultured microglia following LPS treatment and that TLR4 may be significantly involved in inducing these proteins. The microglia may be able to protect themselves against oxidative stress, allowing them to live for more than 1 month. Because long-lived microglia may play a critical role in the exacerbation of neurodegeneration, bringing activated microglia back to their resting stage could be a new and promising strategy to inhibit the deterioration underlying neurodegenerative disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)599-607
Number of pages9
JournalClinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 07-2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology (medical)


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