Rehabilitation for a patient with hemiplegia, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction caused by pontine hemorrhage

Tetsuya Tsunoda, Makoto Watanabe, Ayako Nagai, Yoshiya Ueno, Yasunori Ozeki, Sayaka Okamoto, Shiho Mizuno, Shigeru Sonoda, Shinichiro Maeshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Patients with pontine hemorrhage usually experience severe disturbances of consciousness, pupillary abnormalities, quadriparesis, and respiratory failure. However, little is known regarding cognitive dysfunction in patients with pontine hemorrhage. We report the case of a rehabilitation patient presenting with hemiplegia, ataxia, and cognitive dysfunction caused by a pontine hemorrhage. A 55-year-old, right-handed male suffered sudden onset of vertigo, dysarthria, and hemiplegia on the right side. He was diagnosed with brain stem hemorrhage, and conservative treatment was administered. The vertigo improved, but dysarthria, ataxia, hemiplegia, and gait disorder persisted. He was disoriented with respect to time and place and showed a poor attention span, impaired executive function, and reduced volition. A computed tomography revealed hematomas across the pons on both sides, but no lesions were obvious in the cerebellum and cerebrum. Single-photon emission tomography showed decreased perfusion in the brain stem, bilateral basal ganglia, and frontal and parietal lobes in the left hemisphere. The patient received exercise therapy and cognitive rehabilitation, and home modifications were performed to allow him to continue living at home under the supervision of his family. His symptoms improved, along with enhanced regional cerebral blood flow to the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings suggest that the pontine hemorrhage caused diaschisis resulting in secondary reduction of activity in the cerebral hemisphere and the occurrence of cortical symptoms. Therefore, rehabilitation is necessary, along with active instructions for the family members of patients with severe neurological deficits. This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-220
Number of pages8
JournalCase Reports in Neurology
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Neurology

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