Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, and a number of reports have shown a relationship between CKD and CVD in pre-dialysis or maintenance dialysis patients. However, few studies have reported serial observations during dialysis initiation and maintenance. Therefore, we examined whether the incidence of heart disease events differed between CKD patients with and without a history of coronary heart disease (CHD) at dialysis initiation. Methods: The subjects were patients in the 17 centers participating in the Aichi Cohort Study of Prognosis in Patients Newly Initiated into Dialysis (AICOPP) from October 2011 to September 2013. We excluded nine patients whose outcomes were unknown, as determined by a survey conducted at the end of March 2015. Thus, we enrolled 1,515 subjects into the study. We classified patients into 2 groups according to the history of CHD (i.e., a CHD group and a non-CHD group). Propensity scores (PS) represented the probability of being assigned to a group with or without a history of CHD. Onset of heart disease events and associated mortality and all-cause mortality were compared in PS-matched patients by using the log-rank test for Kaplan-Meier curves. Factors contributing to heart disease events were examined using stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: There were 254 patients in each group after PS-matching. During observation, heart disease events occurred in 85 patients (33.5%) in the CHD group and 48 (18.9%) patients in the non-CHD group. The incidence was significantly higher in the CHD group (p < 0.0001). The CHD group was associated with higher incidence of heart disease events (vs. the non-CHD group, hazard ratio = 1.750, 95% confidence interval = 1.160-2.639). In addition, comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, low body mass index, and low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were associated with higher incidence of events. Conclusion: History of CHD at dialysis initiation was associated with a higher incidence of heart disease events and mortality and all-cause mortality. Trial registration: UMIN 000007096. Registered 18 January 2012.
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