Relationship between metabolic dysfunctions, gene responses and delayed cell death after mild focal cerebral ischemia in mice

D. M. Hermann, E. Kilic, R. Hata, K. A. Hossmann, G. Mies

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84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The evolution of brain injury was examined in mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia as induced by 30 min of intraluminar thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 3 h to 3 days of reperfusion. Metabolic dysfunctions were studied by 3H-leucine autoradiography for the measurement of cerebral protein synthesis and by regional ATP bioluminescent imaging. Metabolic changes were compared with responses of the genes c-fos, c-jun, heat-shock protein gene (hsp)72, p53-activated gene (pag)608 and caspase-3, which were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunocytochemistry, and correlated with the degree of DNA fragmentation, as assessed by the terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling method. Intraluminar thread occlusion led to a reproducible reduction of cerebral laser Doppler flow to 20-30% of control. Thread withdrawal was followed by a short-lasting postischemic hyperperfusion to approximately 120%. In non-ischemic control animals, fractional protein synthesis values of 0.81 ± 0.26 and 0.94 ± 0.23 were obtained. Thread occlusion resulted in a suppression of protein synthesis throughout the territory of the middle cerebral artery after 3 h of reperfusion (0.04 ± 0.08 in caudate-putamen and 0.14 ± 0.19 in somatosensory cortex, P < 0.05). Protein synthesis partly recovered in the cortex after 24 h and 3 days (0.71 ± 0.40 and 0.63 ± 0.26, respectively), but remained suppressed in the caudate-putamen (0.14 ± 0.22 and 0.28 ± 0.28). Regional ATP levels did not show any major disturbances at the reperfusion times examined. Thread occlusion resulted in a transient increase of c-fos mRNA levels in ischemic and non-ischemic parts of the cortex and caudate-putamen at 3 h after ischemia, which suggests that spreading depressions were elicited in the tissue. At the same time, c-jun and hsp72 mRNAs were elevated only in ischemic brain areas showing inhibition of protein synthesis. C-fos and c-jun responses completely disappeared within 24 h of reperfusion. Hsp72 mRNA levels remained elevated in the cortex after 24 h, but decreased to basal values in the caudate-putamen. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, pag608 and caspase-3 mRNA levels increased in the caudate-putamen, where protein synthesis rates were still reduced, and remained elevated even after 3 days. However, pag608 and caspase-3 mRNA levels did not increase in the cortex, where protein synthesis recovered. After 24 h and 3 days, functionally active p20 fragment of caspase-3 was detected in the caudate-putamen, closely associated with the appearance of DNA fragmented cells. Neither activated caspase-3 nor DNA fragmentation were noticed in the cortex. In summary, the suppression of protein synthesis is reversible in the ischemia-resistant cortex following 30 min of thread occlusion in mice, but persists in the vulnerable caudate-putamen. In the caudate-putamen, apoptotic programs are induced, closely in parallel with the manifestation of delayed cell death. Thus, the recovery of protein synthesis may be a major factor influencing tissue survival after transient focal ischemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)947-955
Number of pages9
JournalNeuroscience
Volume104
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 03-07-2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)

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