Relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms: Differences according to resilience and gender in the Shika study

Kuniko Sato, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Fumihiko Suzuki, Akinori Hara, Takayuki Kannon, Go Muto, Daisuke Hori, Sakae Miyagi, Keita Suzuki, Masaharu Nakamura, Chie Takazawa, Tomoko Kasahara, Hirohito Tsuboi, Mie Matsui, Atsushi Tajima, Hiroyuki Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Although the relationship between social capital (SC) and depressive symptoms has been reported in several studies, resilience and gender differences alter those relationships have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, this study cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between SC and depressive symptoms, including suicidal thoughts, based on resilience and gender differences in community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly individuals in Shika town, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Methods: A total of 312 participants older than forty years (149 males and 163 females) were included in the analysis. We assessed depressive symptoms, social capital, and resilience using the Japanese version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), SC scale, and the resilience scale (RS), respectively. Results: Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that in the low RS group, the BDI of the low SC group was significantly higher than that of the high SC group (p = 0.001). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that SC was significantly associated with high BDI in the low RS group, but not in the high RS group (odds ratio = 0.498, 95% confidence interval = 0.328, 0.755, p = 0.001). Conclusions: The present study concluded that low RS and low SC were associated with high depressive symptoms, especially among females. Our findings suggest that increasing SC may be useful in preventing and improving depressive symptoms in less resilient females. Further longitudinal studies are needed to emotional that causal relationship among SC, RS, and BDI.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100421
JournalJournal of Affective Disorders Reports
Publication statusPublished - 12-2022
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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