Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the surgical margin status of the bile duct and the prognosis and recurrence of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods: The clinical data of 100 patients who underwent surgery for EHBD cancer between February 2002 and September 2014 were analyzed. The ductal margin status was classified into the following three categories: negative (D-N), positive with carcinoma in situ (D-CIS), and positive with invasive carcinoma (D-INV). Results: The number of patients with D-N, D-CIS, and D-INV was 69, 16, and 15, respectively. Local recurrence rates of patients with D-CIS (56.3 %) and D-INV (66.7 %) were significantly higher compared to those of patients with D-N (10.1 %; P < 0.001). D-CIS was a significant predictor of shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS). Lymph node metastasis (P = 0.037) and D-INV (P = 0.008) were independent predictors of shorter disease-specific survival (DSS). The prognostic relevance of the ductal margin status was high, particularly in patients without lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: The surgical margin status of the bile duct was significantly associated with RFS, DSS, and the recurrence site.
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