Background: This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic value of positive posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes to clarify the need for dissection of these nodes. Methods: A total of 148 patients with gallbladder carcinoma who underwent radical resection including dissection of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal nodes were enrolled. The incidence of metastasis and the survival rates among patients with metastasis to each lymph node group were calculated. Results: Of the 148 patients, 70 (47%) had nodal disease. The incidences of metastasis in the cystic duct, pericholedochal, retroportal, and hepatic artery node groups, defined as regional nodes in the UICC TNM staging system, ranged from 8.3 to 24.3% with 5-year survival rates of 12.5–46.4% in patients with positive nodes. The incidence of metastasis to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal nodes was 12.8% with a 5-year survival rate of 31.6% in patients with positive nodes. Survival after resection was significantly better in patients with distant nodal disease affecting only the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal nodes (5-year survival, 55.6%) than in patients with distant nodal disease beyond these nodes (5-year survival, 15.0%; p = 0.046), whereas survival after resection was comparable between the former group and patients with regional nodal disease alone (5-year survival, 40.7%; p = 0.426). Conclusions: In gallbladder carcinoma, involvement of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal nodes is similar to that of regional nodes in terms of both the incidence of metastasis and the impact on survival. Inclusion of the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal nodes among the regional nodes should be considered.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes