Background: Although hepatectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) prolongs survival in up to 40% of people, recurrence rates approach 70%. We used a multidisciplinary approach to treat recurrent liver metastases, including chemotherapy, surgery, and palliative care. On the other hand, development of chemotherapeutic agents is remarkable and improves long-term survival. However, whether chemotherapy and repeat hepatectomy combination therapy improve survival or not is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the outcomes of repeat hepatectomy with systemic chemotherapy for mCRC. Methods: Following Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed the records of all patients who underwent hepatectomy for mCRC between 1974 and 2015 at Fujita Health University Hospital. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate overall survival from the first and last hepatectomy in multi hepatectomy cases after 2005 and compared outcomes between groups using the log-rank test. Results: A total of 426 liver resections were performed for mCRC; of these, 236 cases were performed after 2005 (late group). In 118 (50%) cases, the site of recurrence was the liver, 59 (50%) underwent repeat hepatectomy, and 14 cases had ≥ 2 repeat hepatectomies. Overall survival (OS) before and after 2005 was 42.2 and 64.1 months, respectively, with the late group having better OS compared to the early (1974-2004) group. OS for single hepatectomy cases was 83.2 months, for two hepatectomies was 42.9 months, and for three hepatectomies was 35.3 months. In total, 59 patients did not undergo surgery after recurrence with an OS of 28.7 months. Mortality of the second and third repeat hepatectomy was 1.7% and 15.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Repeat hepatectomy with systemic chemotherapy for mCRC is feasible and might achieve improved survival in carefully selected patients.
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