Background: The number of total pancreatectomy cases have increased worldwide, expanding the need for new insulin products and high-titer pancrelipases. However, the current data that is focused on hypoglycemic events after a total pancreatectomy from large nationwide series are still lacking. This study is aimed to assess the risk factors associated with hypoglycemic events after a total pancreatectomy. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from 216 consecutive patients who underwent total pancreatectomies between August 2015 and December 2017 from 68 Japanese centers. Of the 216 patients, 166 with a follow-up period of 1 year were analyzed. The risk factors for hypoglycemic events at 6 and 12 months (postoperative months 6 and 12) were investigated based on the results of a nationwide multicenter prospective study. Results: Of the 166 patients, 57 (34%) and 70 (42%) experienced moderate or severe hypoglycemic events or hypoglycemia unawareness on a monthly basis at postoperative months 6 and 12, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that body weight loss after surgery ≥0.3 kg and total cholesterol level ≤136 mg/dL at postoperative month 6, and glycated hemoglobin level ≤8.9% and rapid-acting insulin use at postoperative month 12 were independent risk factors for hypoglycemic events after a total pancreatectomy. There were different independent risk factors depending on the postoperative period. Conclusion: Patients with body weight loss after surgery, low total cholesterol level, strict glycemic control, and using rapid-acting insulin should be aware of the occurrence of hypoglycemic events after their total pancreatectomy. In order to prevent hypoglycemic events after a total pancreatectomy, we need to consider optimal nutritional and glycemic control according to the postoperative period.
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