Purpose: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was performed to investigate the risk factors of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: From 2009 to 2010, perioperative clinicopathological data were collected from patients who had undergone surgery for UC within the research period, for up to 6 consecutive months in 13 hospitals in Japan. The primary outcome was the development of SSI. Results: A total of 195 patients with UC who underwent colorectal surgery were enrolled. SSI was diagnosed in 38 (19.5 %) patients, in the form of incisional infection in 23 (11.8 %), organ/space infection in 16 (8.2 %), and both in 1 (0.5 %). There were no significant risk factors associated with an increased risk of development of incisional SSI. An American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of ≥ 3 was indicated as the only significant risk factor for organ/space SSI (P = 0.02) compared with other factors, such as a neutrophil count of >100 × 102/mm3, albumin level of <3.5 g/dl, perioperative packed red blood cell transfusion, fair or poor colonic cleanliness, and therapeutic use of antibiotics. Conclusion: Poor general physical status was the significant independent risk factor for organ/space SSI in patients with UC in Japan.
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