Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer

Takashi J. Moriya, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa CostantiniJelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan Mccammon, Brian R. Mcnamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S. Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S. Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Makoto S. Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin'ichiro Uno, C. Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Nozomu Tominaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of < 1 M for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of < 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or < 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M yr-1 at 20 km s-1for the wind environment.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberpsx072
JournalPublications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Volume70
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-03-2018

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Crab nebula
supernovae
crab
spectrometer
spectrometers
plasma
explosion
shell
electron capture
x rays
electron
explosions
crabs
supernova remnants
ejecta
kinetic energy
energy
thermal plasmas
plasma temperature
hydrodynamics

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Moriya, T. J., Aharonian, F., Akamatsu, H., Akimoto, F., Allen, S. W., Angelini, L., ... Tominaga, N. (2018). Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, 70(2), [psx072]. https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx072
Moriya, Takashi J. ; Aharonian, Felix ; Akamatsu, Hiroki ; Akimoto, Fumie ; Allen, Steven W. ; Angelini, Lorella ; Audard, Marc ; Awaki, Hisamitsu ; Axelsson, Magnus ; Bamba, Aya ; Bautz, Marshall W. ; Blandford, Roger ; Brenneman, Laura W. ; Brown, Gregory V. ; Bulbul, Esra ; Cackett, Edward M. ; Chernyakova, Maria ; Chiao, Meng P. ; Coppi, Paolo S. ; Costantini, Elisa ; De Plaa, Jelle ; De Vries, Cor P. ; Den Herder, Jan Willem ; Done, Chris ; Dotani, Tadayasu ; Ebisawa, Ken ; Eckart, Megan E. ; Enoto, Teruaki ; Ezoe, Yuichiro ; Fabian, Andrew C. ; Ferrigno, Carlo ; Foster, Adam R. ; Fujimoto, Ryuichi ; Fukazawa, Yasushi ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Galeazzi, Massimiliano ; Gallo, Luigi C. ; Gandhi, Poshak ; Giustini, Margherita ; Goldwurm, Andrea ; Gu, Liyi ; Guainazzi, Matteo ; Haba, Yoshito ; Hagino, Kouichi ; Hamaguchi, Kenji ; Harrus, Ilana M. ; Hatsukade, Isamu ; Hayashi, Katsuhiro ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Hayashida, Kiyoshi ; Hiraga, Junko S. ; Hornschemeier, Ann ; Hoshino, Akio ; Hughes, John P. ; Ichinohe, Yuto ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Inoue, Hajime ; Inoue, Yoshiyuki ; Ishida, Manabu ; Ishikawa, Kumi ; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka ; Kaastra, Jelle ; Kallman, Tim ; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi ; Kataoka, Jun ; Katsuda, Satoru ; Kawai, Nobuyuki ; Kelley, Richard L. ; Kilbourne, Caroline A. ; Kitaguchi, Takao ; Kitamoto, Shunji ; Kitayama, Tetsu ; Kohmura, Takayoshi ; Kokubun, Motohide ; Koyama, Katsuji ; Koyama, Shu ; Kretschmar, Peter ; Krimm, Hans A. ; Kubota, Aya ; Kunieda, Hideyo ; Laurent, Philippe ; Lee, Shiu Hang ; Leutenegger, Maurice A. ; Limousin, Olivier ; Loewenstein, Michael ; Long, Knox S. ; Lumb, David ; Madejski, Greg ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Maier, Daniel ; Makishima, Kazuo ; Markevitch, Maxim ; Matsumoto, Hironori ; Matsushita, Kyoko ; Mccammon, Dan ; Mcnamara, Brian R. ; Mehdipour, Missagh ; Miller, Eric D. ; Miller, Jon M. ; Mineshige, Shin ; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa ; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki ; Miyazawa, Takuya ; Mizuno, Tsunefumi ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Mori, Koji ; Mukai, Koji ; Murakami, Hiroshi ; Mushotzky, Richard F. ; Nakagawa, Takao ; Nakajima, Hiroshi ; Nakamori, Takeshi ; Nakashima, Shinya ; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro ; Nobukawa, Kumiko K. ; Nobukawa, Masayoshi ; Noda, Hirofumi ; Odaka, Hirokazu ; Ohashi, Takaya ; Ohno, Masanori ; Okajima, Takashi ; Ota, Naomi ; Ozaki, Masanobu ; Paerels, Frits ; Paltani, Stéphane ; Petre, Robert ; Pinto, Ciro ; Porter, Frederick S. ; Pottschmidt, Katja ; Reynolds, Christopher S. ; Safi-Harb, Samar ; Saito, Shinya ; Sakai, Kazuhiro ; Sasaki, Toru ; Sato, Goro ; Sato, Kosuke ; Sato, Rie ; Sato, Toshiki ; Sawada, Makoto ; Schartel, Norbert ; Serlemtsos, Peter J. ; Seta, Hiromi ; Shidatsu, Megumi ; Simionescu, Aurora ; Smith, Randall K. ; Soong, Yang ; Stawarz, Łukasz ; Sugawara, Yasuharu ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Szymkowiak, Andrew ; Tajima, Hiroyasu ; Takahashi, Hiromitsu ; Takahashi, Tadayuki ; Takeda, Shin'ichiro ; Takei, Yoh ; Tamagawa, Toru ; Tamura, Takayuki ; Tanaka, Takaaki ; Tanaka, Yasuo ; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. ; Tashiro, Makoto S. ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Terada, Yukikatsu ; Terashima, Yuichi ; Tombesi, Francesco ; Tomida, Hiroshi ; Tsuboi, Yohko ; Tsujimoto, Masahiro ; Tsunemi, Hiroshi ; Tsuru, Takeshi Go ; Uchida, Hiroyuki ; Uchiyama, Hideki ; Uchiyama, Yasunobu ; Ueda, Shutaro ; Ueda, Yoshihiro ; Uno, Shin'ichiro ; Urry, C. Megan ; Ursino, Eugenio ; Watanabe, Shin ; Werner, Norbert ; Wilkins, Dan R. ; Williams, Brian J. ; Yamada, Shinya ; Yamaguchi, Hiroya ; Yamaoka, Kazutaka ; Yamasaki, Noriko Y. ; Yamauchi, Makoto ; Yamauchi, Shigeo ; Yaqoob, Tahir ; Yatsu, Yoichi ; Yonetoku, Daisuke ; Zhuravleva, Irina ; Zoghbi, Abderahmen ; Tominaga, Nozomu. / Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer. In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 2018 ; Vol. 70, No. 2.
@article{aa3c7231326d4f4da149f38ab50cb53a,
title = "Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer",
abstract = "The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of < 1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of < 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or < 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1for the wind environment.",
author = "Moriya, {Takashi J.} and Felix Aharonian and Hiroki Akamatsu and Fumie Akimoto and Allen, {Steven W.} and Lorella Angelini and Marc Audard and Hisamitsu Awaki and Magnus Axelsson and Aya Bamba and Bautz, {Marshall W.} and Roger Blandford and Brenneman, {Laura W.} and Brown, {Gregory V.} and Esra Bulbul and Cackett, {Edward M.} and Maria Chernyakova and Chiao, {Meng P.} and Coppi, {Paolo S.} and Elisa Costantini and {De Plaa}, Jelle and {De Vries}, {Cor P.} and {Den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Chris Done and Tadayasu Dotani and Ken Ebisawa and Eckart, {Megan E.} and Teruaki Enoto and Yuichiro Ezoe and Fabian, {Andrew C.} and Carlo Ferrigno and Foster, {Adam R.} and Ryuichi Fujimoto and Yasushi Fukazawa and Akihiro Furuzawa and Massimiliano Galeazzi and Gallo, {Luigi C.} and Poshak Gandhi and Margherita Giustini and Andrea Goldwurm and Liyi Gu and Matteo Guainazzi and Yoshito Haba and Kouichi Hagino and Kenji Hamaguchi and Harrus, {Ilana M.} and Isamu Hatsukade and Katsuhiro Hayashi and Takayuki Hayashi and Kiyoshi Hayashida and Hiraga, {Junko S.} and Ann Hornschemeier and Akio Hoshino and Hughes, {John P.} and Yuto Ichinohe and Ryo Iizuka and Hajime Inoue and Yoshiyuki Inoue and Manabu Ishida and Kumi Ishikawa and Yoshitaka Ishisaki and Jelle Kaastra and Tim Kallman and Tsuneyoshi Kamae and Jun Kataoka and Satoru Katsuda and Nobuyuki Kawai and Kelley, {Richard L.} and Kilbourne, {Caroline A.} and Takao Kitaguchi and Shunji Kitamoto and Tetsu Kitayama and Takayoshi Kohmura and Motohide Kokubun and Katsuji Koyama and Shu Koyama and Peter Kretschmar and Krimm, {Hans A.} and Aya Kubota and Hideyo Kunieda and Philippe Laurent and Lee, {Shiu Hang} and Leutenegger, {Maurice A.} and Olivier Limousin and Michael Loewenstein and Long, {Knox S.} and David Lumb and Greg Madejski and Yoshitomo Maeda and Daniel Maier and Kazuo Makishima and Maxim Markevitch and Hironori Matsumoto and Kyoko Matsushita and Dan Mccammon and Mcnamara, {Brian R.} and Missagh Mehdipour and Miller, {Eric D.} and Miller, {Jon M.} and Shin Mineshige and Kazuhisa Mitsuda and Ikuyuki Mitsuishi and Takuya Miyazawa and Tsunefumi Mizuno and Hideyuki Mori and Koji Mori and Koji Mukai and Hiroshi Murakami and Mushotzky, {Richard F.} and Takao Nakagawa and Hiroshi Nakajima and Takeshi Nakamori and Shinya Nakashima and Kazuhiro Nakazawa and Nobukawa, {Kumiko K.} and Masayoshi Nobukawa and Hirofumi Noda and Hirokazu Odaka and Takaya Ohashi and Masanori Ohno and Takashi Okajima and Naomi Ota and Masanobu Ozaki and Frits Paerels and St{\'e}phane Paltani and Robert Petre and Ciro Pinto and Porter, {Frederick S.} and Katja Pottschmidt and Reynolds, {Christopher S.} and Samar Safi-Harb and Shinya Saito and Kazuhiro Sakai and Toru Sasaki and Goro Sato and Kosuke Sato and Rie Sato and Toshiki Sato and Makoto Sawada and Norbert Schartel and Serlemtsos, {Peter J.} and Hiromi Seta and Megumi Shidatsu and Aurora Simionescu and Smith, {Randall K.} and Yang Soong and Łukasz Stawarz and Yasuharu Sugawara and Satoshi Sugita and Andrew Szymkowiak and Hiroyasu Tajima and Hiromitsu Takahashi and Tadayuki Takahashi and Shin'ichiro Takeda and Yoh Takei and Toru Tamagawa and Takayuki Tamura and Takaaki Tanaka and Yasuo Tanaka and Tanaka, {Yasuyuki T.} and Tashiro, {Makoto S.} and Yuzuru Tawara and Yukikatsu Terada and Yuichi Terashima and Francesco Tombesi and Hiroshi Tomida and Yohko Tsuboi and Masahiro Tsujimoto and Hiroshi Tsunemi and Tsuru, {Takeshi Go} and Hiroyuki Uchida and Hideki Uchiyama and Yasunobu Uchiyama and Shutaro Ueda and Yoshihiro Ueda and Shin'ichiro Uno and Urry, {C. Megan} and Eugenio Ursino and Shin Watanabe and Norbert Werner and Wilkins, {Dan R.} and Williams, {Brian J.} and Shinya Yamada and Hiroya Yamaguchi and Kazutaka Yamaoka and Yamasaki, {Noriko Y.} and Makoto Yamauchi and Shigeo Yamauchi and Tahir Yaqoob and Yoichi Yatsu and Daisuke Yonetoku and Irina Zhuravleva and Abderahmen Zoghbi and Nozomu Tominaga",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
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doi = "10.1093/pasj/psx072",
language = "English",
volume = "70",
journal = "Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan",
issn = "0004-6264",
publisher = "Astronomical Society of Japan",
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Moriya, TJ, Aharonian, F, Akamatsu, H, Akimoto, F, Allen, SW, Angelini, L, Audard, M, Awaki, H, Axelsson, M, Bamba, A, Bautz, MW, Blandford, R, Brenneman, LW, Brown, GV, Bulbul, E, Cackett, EM, Chernyakova, M, Chiao, MP, Coppi, PS, Costantini, E, De Plaa, J, De Vries, CP, Den Herder, JW, Done, C, Dotani, T, Ebisawa, K, Eckart, ME, Enoto, T, Ezoe, Y, Fabian, AC, Ferrigno, C, Foster, AR, Fujimoto, R, Fukazawa, Y, Furuzawa, A, Galeazzi, M, Gallo, LC, Gandhi, P, Giustini, M, Goldwurm, A, Gu, L, Guainazzi, M, Haba, Y, Hagino, K, Hamaguchi, K, Harrus, IM, Hatsukade, I, Hayashi, K, Hayashi, T, Hayashida, K, Hiraga, JS, Hornschemeier, A, Hoshino, A, Hughes, JP, Ichinohe, Y, Iizuka, R, Inoue, H, Inoue, Y, Ishida, M, Ishikawa, K, Ishisaki, Y, Kaastra, J, Kallman, T, Kamae, T, Kataoka, J, Katsuda, S, Kawai, N, Kelley, RL, Kilbourne, CA, Kitaguchi, T, Kitamoto, S, Kitayama, T, Kohmura, T, Kokubun, M, Koyama, K, Koyama, S, Kretschmar, P, Krimm, HA, Kubota, A, Kunieda, H, Laurent, P, Lee, SH, Leutenegger, MA, Limousin, O, Loewenstein, M, Long, KS, Lumb, D, Madejski, G, Maeda, Y, Maier, D, Makishima, K, Markevitch, M, Matsumoto, H, Matsushita, K, Mccammon, D, Mcnamara, BR, Mehdipour, M, Miller, ED, Miller, JM, Mineshige, S, Mitsuda, K, Mitsuishi, I, Miyazawa, T, Mizuno, T, Mori, H, Mori, K, Mukai, K, Murakami, H, Mushotzky, RF, Nakagawa, T, Nakajima, H, Nakamori, T, Nakashima, S, Nakazawa, K, Nobukawa, KK, Nobukawa, M, Noda, H, Odaka, H, Ohashi, T, Ohno, M, Okajima, T, Ota, N, Ozaki, M, Paerels, F, Paltani, S, Petre, R, Pinto, C, Porter, FS, Pottschmidt, K, Reynolds, CS, Safi-Harb, S, Saito, S, Sakai, K, Sasaki, T, Sato, G, Sato, K, Sato, R, Sato, T, Sawada, M, Schartel, N, Serlemtsos, PJ, Seta, H, Shidatsu, M, Simionescu, A, Smith, RK, Soong, Y, Stawarz, Ł, Sugawara, Y, Sugita, S, Szymkowiak, A, Tajima, H, Takahashi, H, Takahashi, T, Takeda, S, Takei, Y, Tamagawa, T, Tamura, T, Tanaka, T, Tanaka, Y, Tanaka, YT, Tashiro, MS, Tawara, Y, Terada, Y, Terashima, Y, Tombesi, F, Tomida, H, Tsuboi, Y, Tsujimoto, M, Tsunemi, H, Tsuru, TG, Uchida, H, Uchiyama, H, Uchiyama, Y, Ueda, S, Ueda, Y, Uno, S, Urry, CM, Ursino, E, Watanabe, S, Werner, N, Wilkins, DR, Williams, BJ, Yamada, S, Yamaguchi, H, Yamaoka, K, Yamasaki, NY, Yamauchi, M, Yamauchi, S, Yaqoob, T, Yatsu, Y, Yonetoku, D, Zhuravleva, I, Zoghbi, A & Tominaga, N 2018, 'Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer', Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, vol. 70, no. 2, psx072. https://doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psx072

Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer. / Moriya, Takashi J.; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Angelini, Lorella; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall W.; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura W.; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward M.; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng P.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Costantini, Elisa; De Plaa, Jelle; De Vries, Cor P.; Den Herder, Jan Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan E.; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam R.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi C.; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana M.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko S.; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John P.; Ichinohe, Yuto; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Tim; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Katsuji; Koyama, Shu; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans A.; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lee, Shiu Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Greg; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mccammon, Dan; Mcnamara, Brian R.; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric D.; Miller, Jon M.; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Porter, Frederick S.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemtsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall K.; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Łukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shin'ichiro; Urry, C. Megan; Ursino, Eugenio; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wilkins, Dan R.; Williams, Brian J.; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen; Tominaga, Nozomu.

In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 70, No. 2, psx072, 01.03.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer

AU - Moriya, Takashi J.

AU - Aharonian, Felix

AU - Akamatsu, Hiroki

AU - Akimoto, Fumie

AU - Allen, Steven W.

AU - Angelini, Lorella

AU - Audard, Marc

AU - Awaki, Hisamitsu

AU - Axelsson, Magnus

AU - Bamba, Aya

AU - Bautz, Marshall W.

AU - Blandford, Roger

AU - Brenneman, Laura W.

AU - Brown, Gregory V.

AU - Bulbul, Esra

AU - Cackett, Edward M.

AU - Chernyakova, Maria

AU - Chiao, Meng P.

AU - Coppi, Paolo S.

AU - Costantini, Elisa

AU - De Plaa, Jelle

AU - De Vries, Cor P.

AU - Den Herder, Jan Willem

AU - Done, Chris

AU - Dotani, Tadayasu

AU - Ebisawa, Ken

AU - Eckart, Megan E.

AU - Enoto, Teruaki

AU - Ezoe, Yuichiro

AU - Fabian, Andrew C.

AU - Ferrigno, Carlo

AU - Foster, Adam R.

AU - Fujimoto, Ryuichi

AU - Fukazawa, Yasushi

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Galeazzi, Massimiliano

AU - Gallo, Luigi C.

AU - Gandhi, Poshak

AU - Giustini, Margherita

AU - Goldwurm, Andrea

AU - Gu, Liyi

AU - Guainazzi, Matteo

AU - Haba, Yoshito

AU - Hagino, Kouichi

AU - Hamaguchi, Kenji

AU - Harrus, Ilana M.

AU - Hatsukade, Isamu

AU - Hayashi, Katsuhiro

AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

AU - Hayashida, Kiyoshi

AU - Hiraga, Junko S.

AU - Hornschemeier, Ann

AU - Hoshino, Akio

AU - Hughes, John P.

AU - Ichinohe, Yuto

AU - Iizuka, Ryo

AU - Inoue, Hajime

AU - Inoue, Yoshiyuki

AU - Ishida, Manabu

AU - Ishikawa, Kumi

AU - Ishisaki, Yoshitaka

AU - Kaastra, Jelle

AU - Kallman, Tim

AU - Kamae, Tsuneyoshi

AU - Kataoka, Jun

AU - Katsuda, Satoru

AU - Kawai, Nobuyuki

AU - Kelley, Richard L.

AU - Kilbourne, Caroline A.

AU - Kitaguchi, Takao

AU - Kitamoto, Shunji

AU - Kitayama, Tetsu

AU - Kohmura, Takayoshi

AU - Kokubun, Motohide

AU - Koyama, Katsuji

AU - Koyama, Shu

AU - Kretschmar, Peter

AU - Krimm, Hans A.

AU - Kubota, Aya

AU - Kunieda, Hideyo

AU - Laurent, Philippe

AU - Lee, Shiu Hang

AU - Leutenegger, Maurice A.

AU - Limousin, Olivier

AU - Loewenstein, Michael

AU - Long, Knox S.

AU - Lumb, David

AU - Madejski, Greg

AU - Maeda, Yoshitomo

AU - Maier, Daniel

AU - Makishima, Kazuo

AU - Markevitch, Maxim

AU - Matsumoto, Hironori

AU - Matsushita, Kyoko

AU - Mccammon, Dan

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AU - Mehdipour, Missagh

AU - Miller, Eric D.

AU - Miller, Jon M.

AU - Mineshige, Shin

AU - Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

AU - Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki

AU - Miyazawa, Takuya

AU - Mizuno, Tsunefumi

AU - Mori, Hideyuki

AU - Mori, Koji

AU - Mukai, Koji

AU - Murakami, Hiroshi

AU - Mushotzky, Richard F.

AU - Nakagawa, Takao

AU - Nakajima, Hiroshi

AU - Nakamori, Takeshi

AU - Nakashima, Shinya

AU - Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

AU - Nobukawa, Kumiko K.

AU - Nobukawa, Masayoshi

AU - Noda, Hirofumi

AU - Odaka, Hirokazu

AU - Ohashi, Takaya

AU - Ohno, Masanori

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Ota, Naomi

AU - Ozaki, Masanobu

AU - Paerels, Frits

AU - Paltani, Stéphane

AU - Petre, Robert

AU - Pinto, Ciro

AU - Porter, Frederick S.

AU - Pottschmidt, Katja

AU - Reynolds, Christopher S.

AU - Safi-Harb, Samar

AU - Saito, Shinya

AU - Sakai, Kazuhiro

AU - Sasaki, Toru

AU - Sato, Goro

AU - Sato, Kosuke

AU - Sato, Rie

AU - Sato, Toshiki

AU - Sawada, Makoto

AU - Schartel, Norbert

AU - Serlemtsos, Peter J.

AU - Seta, Hiromi

AU - Shidatsu, Megumi

AU - Simionescu, Aurora

AU - Smith, Randall K.

AU - Soong, Yang

AU - Stawarz, Łukasz

AU - Sugawara, Yasuharu

AU - Sugita, Satoshi

AU - Szymkowiak, Andrew

AU - Tajima, Hiroyasu

AU - Takahashi, Hiromitsu

AU - Takahashi, Tadayuki

AU - Takeda, Shin'ichiro

AU - Takei, Yoh

AU - Tamagawa, Toru

AU - Tamura, Takayuki

AU - Tanaka, Takaaki

AU - Tanaka, Yasuo

AU - Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.

AU - Tashiro, Makoto S.

AU - Tawara, Yuzuru

AU - Terada, Yukikatsu

AU - Terashima, Yuichi

AU - Tombesi, Francesco

AU - Tomida, Hiroshi

AU - Tsuboi, Yohko

AU - Tsujimoto, Masahiro

AU - Tsunemi, Hiroshi

AU - Tsuru, Takeshi Go

AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki

AU - Uchiyama, Hideki

AU - Uchiyama, Yasunobu

AU - Ueda, Shutaro

AU - Ueda, Yoshihiro

AU - Uno, Shin'ichiro

AU - Urry, C. Megan

AU - Ursino, Eugenio

AU - Watanabe, Shin

AU - Werner, Norbert

AU - Wilkins, Dan R.

AU - Williams, Brian J.

AU - Yamada, Shinya

AU - Yamaguchi, Hiroya

AU - Yamaoka, Kazutaka

AU - Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

AU - Yamauchi, Makoto

AU - Yamauchi, Shigeo

AU - Yaqoob, Tahir

AU - Yatsu, Yoichi

AU - Yonetoku, Daisuke

AU - Zhuravleva, Irina

AU - Zoghbi, Abderahmen

AU - Tominaga, Nozomu

PY - 2018/3/1

Y1 - 2018/3/1

N2 - The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of < 1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of < 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or < 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1for the wind environment.

AB - The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054AD. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core-collapse SN. Intensive searches have been made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that SN 1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core-collapse SNe. X-ray imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit on the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter on board the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from as yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2-12keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of < 1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature values both in and out of collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform interstellar medium versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of < 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or < 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1for the wind environment.

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U2 - 10.1093/pasj/psx072

DO - 10.1093/pasj/psx072

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85058343250

VL - 70

JO - Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan

JF - Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan

SN - 0004-6264

IS - 2

M1 - psx072

ER -