Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan

Ohsaki study

Oshimasa Sone, Naoki Nakaya, Kaori Ohmori, Taichi Shimazu, Mizuka Higashiguchi, Masako Kakizaki, Nobutaka Kikuchi, Shinichi Kuriyama, Ichiro Tsuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

47 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the association between the sense of life worth living (ikigai) and the cause-specific mortality risk. The psychological factors play important roles in morbidity and mortality risks. However, the association between the negative psychological factors and the risk of mortality is inconclusive. Methods: The Ohsaki Study, a prospective cohort study, was initiated on 43,391 Japanese adults. To assess if the subjects found a sense of ikigai, they were asked the question, Do you have ikigai in your life? We used Cox regression analysis to calculate the hazard ratio of the all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to the sense of ikigai categories. Results: Over 7 years' follow-up, 3048 of the subjects died. The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher among the subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai as compared with that in the subjects who found a sense of ikigai; the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.5 (1.3-1.7). As for the cause-specific mortality, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.6; 1.3-2.0) and external cause mortality (1.9; 1.1-3.3), but not of the cancer mortality (1.3; 1.0-1.6). Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. The increase in mortality risk was attributable to cardiovascular disease and external causes, but not cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-715
Number of pages7
JournalPsychosomatic Medicine
Volume70
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-07-2008

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Japan
Mortality
Cohort Studies
Cardiovascular Diseases
Prospective Studies
Psychology
Neoplasms
Regression Analysis
Confidence Intervals
Morbidity

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Sone, O., Nakaya, N., Ohmori, K., Shimazu, T., Higashiguchi, M., Kakizaki, M., ... Tsuji, I. (2008). Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan: Ohsaki study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6), 709-715. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817e7e64
Sone, Oshimasa ; Nakaya, Naoki ; Ohmori, Kaori ; Shimazu, Taichi ; Higashiguchi, Mizuka ; Kakizaki, Masako ; Kikuchi, Nobutaka ; Kuriyama, Shinichi ; Tsuji, Ichiro. / Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan : Ohsaki study. In: Psychosomatic Medicine. 2008 ; Vol. 70, No. 6. pp. 709-715.
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Sone, O, Nakaya, N, Ohmori, K, Shimazu, T, Higashiguchi, M, Kakizaki, M, Kikuchi, N, Kuriyama, S & Tsuji, I 2008, 'Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan: Ohsaki study', Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 709-715. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31817e7e64

Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan : Ohsaki study. / Sone, Oshimasa; Nakaya, Naoki; Ohmori, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Higashiguchi, Mizuka; Kakizaki, Masako; Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro.

In: Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 70, No. 6, 01.07.2008, p. 709-715.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Sense of life worth living (Ikigai) and mortality in Japan

T2 - Ohsaki study

AU - Sone, Oshimasa

AU - Nakaya, Naoki

AU - Ohmori, Kaori

AU - Shimazu, Taichi

AU - Higashiguchi, Mizuka

AU - Kakizaki, Masako

AU - Kikuchi, Nobutaka

AU - Kuriyama, Shinichi

AU - Tsuji, Ichiro

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Y1 - 2008/7/1

N2 - Objective: To investigate the association between the sense of life worth living (ikigai) and the cause-specific mortality risk. The psychological factors play important roles in morbidity and mortality risks. However, the association between the negative psychological factors and the risk of mortality is inconclusive. Methods: The Ohsaki Study, a prospective cohort study, was initiated on 43,391 Japanese adults. To assess if the subjects found a sense of ikigai, they were asked the question, Do you have ikigai in your life? We used Cox regression analysis to calculate the hazard ratio of the all-cause and cause-specific mortality according to the sense of ikigai categories. Results: Over 7 years' follow-up, 3048 of the subjects died. The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher among the subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai as compared with that in the subjects who found a sense of ikigai; the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.5 (1.3-1.7). As for the cause-specific mortality, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (1.6; 1.3-2.0) and external cause mortality (1.9; 1.1-3.3), but not of the cancer mortality (1.3; 1.0-1.6). Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study, subjects who did not find a sense of ikigai were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. The increase in mortality risk was attributable to cardiovascular disease and external causes, but not cancer.

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