Background: Evidence of characteristics of Japanese patients with diabetes from a large-scale population is necessary. Few studies have compared glycaemic controls, complications and comorbidities between type 1 and 2 diabetic patients. This paper focuses on illustrating a clinical picture of Japanese diabetic patients and comparing glycaemic control and prognoses between type 1 and 2 diabetes using multiinstitutional data. Methods: The BioBank Japan Project enrolled adult type 1 and 2 diabetic patients between fiscal years 2003 and 2007. We have presented characteristics, controls of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure, prevalence of complications and comorbidities and survival curves. We have also shown glycaemic controls according to various individual profiles of diabetic patients. Results: A total of 558 type 1 diabetic patients and 30,834 type 2 diabetic patients participated in this study. The mean glycated haemoglobin A1c was higher in type 1 diabetes than in type 2 diabetes. In the type 1 diabetic patients, the glycated haemoglobin A1c had no consistent trend according to age and body mass index. The KaplaneMeier estimates represented a longer survival time from baseline with type 1 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes. Compared with type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetic patients had double the prevalence of macrovascular complications. Conclusions: This work has revealed detailed plasma glucose levels of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients according to age, body mass index, blood pressure, serum cholesterol levels and smoking and drinking habits. Our data have also shown that the prognosis is worse for type 2 diabetes than for type 1 diabetes in Japan.
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