Severe disseminated varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection rarely occurs in patients who are not recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This report concerns severe disseminated VZV infection in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patient treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP). The patient was an 82-year-old male with DLBCL who had a history of type II diabetes mellitus. He incurred VZV infection with severe hepatitis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy after three courses of R-CHOP. When the VZV infection occurred, anti-VZV IgG was not detected and lymphopenia was observed. We initiated treatment with acyclovir, immunoglobulin, and thrombomodulin alpha, and rescued this patient. We suggest that the use of chemotherapy for immune-suppressed elderly lymphoma patients may involve the risk of severe VZV infection.
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