Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignant tumor after hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prevalence of lymph node metastases (LNM) detected at surgery for IHCC has been reported as 25-50%, and lymph node metastasis is known to be significantly associated with poor survival outcomes. However, the oncologic value of lymph node dissection in resected IHCC is still controversial. According to the present Korea-Japan international collaborative study, it was found that surgical retrieval of more than four lymph nodes (≥4 LNs) could improve survival outcome in resected IHCC with LNM. Based on preoperatively detectable parameters, a nomogram was established to predict LNM to suggest tailored intraoperative LN management in patients with IHCC. Further prospective research is needed to validate the present surgical strategy in resected IHCC. Background: This study was performed to investigate the oncologic role of lymph node (LN) management and to propose a surgical strategy for treating intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). Methods: The medical records of patients with resected IHCC were retrospectively reviewed from multiple institutions in Korea and Japan. Short-term and long-term oncologic outcomes were analyzed according to lymph node metastasis (LNM). A nomogram to predict LNM in treating IHCC was established to propose a surgical strategy for managing IHCC. Results: A total of 1138 patients were enrolled. Of these, 413 patients underwent LN management and 725 did not. A total of 293 patients were found to have LNM. The No. 12 lymph node (36%) was the most frequent metastatic node, and the No. 8 lymph node (21%) was the second most common. LNM showed adverse long-term oncologic impact in patients with resected IHCC (14 months, 95% CI (11.4-16.6) vs. 74 months, 95% CI (57.2-90.8), p < 0.001), and the number of LNM (0, 1-3, 4≤) was also significantly related to negative oncologic impacts in patients with resected IHCC (74 months, 95% CI (57.2-90.8) vs. 19 months, 95% CI (14.4-23.6) vs. 11 months, 95% CI (8.1-13.8)), p < 0.001). Surgical retrieval of more than four (≥4) LNs could improve the survival outcome in resected IHCC with LNM (13 months, 95% CI (10.4-15.6)) vs. 30 months, 95% CI (13.1-46.9), p = 0.045). Based on preoperatively detectable parameters, a nomogram was established to predict LNM according to the tumor location. The AUC was 0.748 (95% CI: 0.706-0.788), and the Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test showed p = 0.4904. Conclusion: Case-specific surgical retrieval of more than four LNs is required in patients highly suspected to have LNM, based on a preoperative detectable parameter-based nomogram. Further prospective research is needed to validate the present surgical strategy in resected IHCC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research