Aim: This study aimed to compare the incidence of postoperative nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), postoperative cholangitis, and fibrosis-4 (FIB)-4 index in patients who underwent duodenum-preserving pancreatic head resection (DPPHR) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for low-grade malignant tumors and verify the usefulness of DPPHR in preventing the occurrence of these disorders. Methods: This retrospective study included 70 patients who underwent PD (n = 39) and DPPHR (n = 31) between 2006 and 2018 for benign or low-grade malignant tumors. The present study compared the preoperative background, cumulative incidence of postoperative NAFLD and cholangitis, and other biochemical markers, including the FIB-4 index. Subanalysis by propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was conducted to minimize treatment selection bias. Results: In terms of the cumulative incidence of NAFLD, the 5-y incidence was significantly lower in the DPPHR group than in the PD group both before (10% vs 38%, P =.002) and after (13% vs 38%, P =.008) matching. Multivariate analyses identified DPPHR as the only independent preventive factor for postoperative NAFLD (hazard ratio: 0.160, 95% confidence intervals: 0.034–0.76, P =.021). The 5-y cumulative incidence of postoperative cholangitis was significantly higher in the PD group than in the DPPHR group before (51% vs 3%, P <.001) and after (49% vs 4%, P <.001) matching. The FIB-4 index at 12 mo postoperatively was significantly better in the DPPHR group than in the PD group (1.45 vs 2.35, P =.006) before matching. Conclusion: Preservation of the duodenum and bile duct may contribute to preventing long-term postoperative NAFLD and cholangitis, and liver fibrosis for benign or low-grade malignant pancreatic head tumors.
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