Skin Physiology and its Microbiome as Factors Associated with the Recurrence of Pressure Injuries

Kana Shibata, Kazuhiro Ogai, Kohei Ogura, Tamae Urai, Miku Aoki, Defa Arisandi, Natsuki Takahashi, Shigefumi Okamoto, Hiromi Sanada, Junko Sugama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Preventing recurrent pressure injuries (RPIs) is one of the important challenges faced in healthcare, but the risk factors of RPIs have not been fully revealed. This study aims to explore factors associated with RPIs, by focusing on skin physiology and its microbiome as local factors crucial for the health of healed tissue after pressure injury healing. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Japan with patients whose PIs had healed within 1 month. Skin physiology was evaluated by stratum corneum (SC) hydration, pH, and transepidermal water loss. Skin bacteria was collected by tape stripping, followed by 16S ribosomal RNA-based metagenomics analysis. These parameters were evaluated every two weeks over a period of six weeks. Results: A total of 30 patients were included in this study, and 8 patients (26.7%) had an RPI within 6 weeks. In this study, significantly lower SC hydration and a higher rate of Staphylococcus species on the healed site were found in the RPI group. Discussion: A high rate of RPIs (about one in four) points out the necessity of a further care strategy on the healed PIs. Lower skin hydration and/or the increase in Staphylococcus bacteria may have a potential to be used as a biomarker for the prediction of RPIs, or may be an intervention point for the prevention of RPIs by, for example, skin cleansing with moisturizing care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-81
Number of pages7
JournalBiological Research for Nursing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Research and Theory


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