Aim: We investigated the relationship between small dense low-density cholesterol (sdLDL-C) and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients treated with high-or low-dose statin therapy. Methods: This was a prospective case-cohort study within the Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) study, a randomized trial of high-or low-dose (4 or 1 mg/d pitavastatin, respectively) statin therapy, in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Serum sdLDL-C was determined using an automated homogenous assay at baseline (randomization after a rule-in period, ＞1 month with 1 mg/d pitavastatin) and 6 months after randomization, in 497 MACE cases, and 1543 participants randomly selected from the REAL-CAD study population. Results: High-dose pitavastatin reduced sdLDL-C by 20% than low-dose pitavastatin (p for interaction ＜ 0.001). Among patients receiving low-dose pitavastatin, baseline sdLDL-C demonstrated higher MACE risk independent of LDL-C (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 4th versus 1st quartile, 1.67 [1.04–2.68]; p for trend =0.034). High-dose (versus low-dose) pitavastatin reduced MACE risk by 46% in patients in the highest baseline sdLDL-C quartile (＞34.3 mg/dL; 0.54 [0.36–0.81]; p =0.003), but increased relative risk by 40% in patients with 1st quartile (≤ 19.5 mg/dL; 1.40 [0.94–2.09]; p =0.099) and did not alter risk in those in 2nd and 3rd quartiles (p for interaction =0.002). Conclusions: These findings associate sdLDL-C and cardiovascular risk, independent of LDL-C, in statin-treated CAD patients. Notably, high-dose statin therapy reduces this risk in those with the highest baseline sdLDL-C.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical