Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer

Findings from the JACC Study

Kiyomi Sakata, Yoshiharu Hoshiyama, Seiji Morioka, Tsutomu Hashimoto, Tatsuya Takeshita, Akiko Tamakoshi, Mitsuru Mori, Yutaka Motohashi, Ichiro Tsuji, Yosikazu Nakamura, Hiroyasu Iso, Haruo Mikami, Yutaka Inaba, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Hideaki Toyoshima, Kenji Wakai, Shinkan Tokudome, Yoshinori Ito, Shuji Hashimoto & 16 others Shogo Kikuchi, Akio Koizumi, Takashi Kawamura, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Tsuneharu Miki, Chigusa Date, Takayuki Nose, Norihiko Hayakawa, Takesumi Yoshimura, Akira Shibata, Naoyuki Okamoro, Hideo Shio, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Tomoyuki Kitagawa, Toshio Kuroki, Kazuo Tajima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Using a large-scale cohort of about 110,000 people established in 45 areas through-out Japan from 1988 through 1990, the study attempted to uncover the joint effects of combined smoking and alcohol intake on esophageal cancer mortality. Methods: A cohort established from 1988 through 1990 included 46,465 men and 64,327 women aged 40 years and older and younger than 80. The number of female smokers and drinkers was low, and women were excluded from the analysis for that reason. In addition, 308 people with histories of malignant neoplasm, and 3,579 with unclear smoking and drinking data were also excluded, resulting in 42,578 people available for analysis. A follow-up of these individuals was conducted until 1999. Cox proportional hazards model was used for the analysis. Results: The joint effects of number of cigarettes and amount of alcohol consumed per day were compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers or those consuming less than one unit of alcohol per day. An increased synergistic esophageal cancer mortality risk (3.88) for both smoking and drinking was observed for those smoking 20 cigarettes or less per day and drinking one unit of alcohol or more but less than three units per day, with the risk rising (6.30) for those smoking at least 21 cigarettes and drinking at least three units of alcohol per day. Even in non-smokers with increased alcohol consumption, and in non-drinkers or those drinking at most one drink per day with increased smoking, no increased risk was observed. Conclusions: In this cohort study of a Japanese population, increased esophageal cancer mortality risk was observed only when both factors of alcohol and tobacco intake were present simultaneously.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of epidemiology
Volume15
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14-10-2005

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Esophageal Neoplasms
Alcohol Drinking
Drinking
Smoking
Alcohols
Tobacco Products
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Tobacco
Japan
Cohort Studies
Population
Neoplasms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Sakata, K., Hoshiyama, Y., Morioka, S., Hashimoto, T., Takeshita, T., Tamakoshi, A., ... Tajima, K. (2005). Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer: Findings from the JACC Study. Journal of epidemiology, 15(SUPPL. 2). https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.15.S212
Sakata, Kiyomi ; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu ; Morioka, Seiji ; Hashimoto, Tsutomu ; Takeshita, Tatsuya ; Tamakoshi, Akiko ; Mori, Mitsuru ; Motohashi, Yutaka ; Tsuji, Ichiro ; Nakamura, Yosikazu ; Iso, Hiroyasu ; Mikami, Haruo ; Inaba, Yutaka ; Suzuki, Hiroshi ; Shimizu, Hiroyuki ; Toyoshima, Hideaki ; Wakai, Kenji ; Tokudome, Shinkan ; Ito, Yoshinori ; Hashimoto, Shuji ; Kikuchi, Shogo ; Koizumi, Akio ; Kawamura, Takashi ; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki ; Miki, Tsuneharu ; Date, Chigusa ; Nose, Takayuki ; Hayakawa, Norihiko ; Yoshimura, Takesumi ; Shibata, Akira ; Okamoro, Naoyuki ; Shio, Hideo ; Ohno, Yoshiyuki ; Kitagawa, Tomoyuki ; Kuroki, Toshio ; Tajima, Kazuo. / Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer : Findings from the JACC Study. In: Journal of epidemiology. 2005 ; Vol. 15, No. SUPPL. 2.
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abstract = "Background: Using a large-scale cohort of about 110,000 people established in 45 areas through-out Japan from 1988 through 1990, the study attempted to uncover the joint effects of combined smoking and alcohol intake on esophageal cancer mortality. Methods: A cohort established from 1988 through 1990 included 46,465 men and 64,327 women aged 40 years and older and younger than 80. The number of female smokers and drinkers was low, and women were excluded from the analysis for that reason. In addition, 308 people with histories of malignant neoplasm, and 3,579 with unclear smoking and drinking data were also excluded, resulting in 42,578 people available for analysis. A follow-up of these individuals was conducted until 1999. Cox proportional hazards model was used for the analysis. Results: The joint effects of number of cigarettes and amount of alcohol consumed per day were compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers or those consuming less than one unit of alcohol per day. An increased synergistic esophageal cancer mortality risk (3.88) for both smoking and drinking was observed for those smoking 20 cigarettes or less per day and drinking one unit of alcohol or more but less than three units per day, with the risk rising (6.30) for those smoking at least 21 cigarettes and drinking at least three units of alcohol per day. Even in non-smokers with increased alcohol consumption, and in non-drinkers or those drinking at most one drink per day with increased smoking, no increased risk was observed. Conclusions: In this cohort study of a Japanese population, increased esophageal cancer mortality risk was observed only when both factors of alcohol and tobacco intake were present simultaneously.",
author = "Kiyomi Sakata and Yoshiharu Hoshiyama and Seiji Morioka and Tsutomu Hashimoto and Tatsuya Takeshita and Akiko Tamakoshi and Mitsuru Mori and Yutaka Motohashi and Ichiro Tsuji and Yosikazu Nakamura and Hiroyasu Iso and Haruo Mikami and Yutaka Inaba and Hiroshi Suzuki and Hiroyuki Shimizu and Hideaki Toyoshima and Kenji Wakai and Shinkan Tokudome and Yoshinori Ito and Shuji Hashimoto and Shogo Kikuchi and Akio Koizumi and Takashi Kawamura and Yoshiyuki Watanabe and Tsuneharu Miki and Chigusa Date and Takayuki Nose and Norihiko Hayakawa and Takesumi Yoshimura and Akira Shibata and Naoyuki Okamoro and Hideo Shio and Yoshiyuki Ohno and Tomoyuki Kitagawa and Toshio Kuroki and Kazuo Tajima",
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Sakata, K, Hoshiyama, Y, Morioka, S, Hashimoto, T, Takeshita, T, Tamakoshi, A, Mori, M, Motohashi, Y, Tsuji, I, Nakamura, Y, Iso, H, Mikami, H, Inaba, Y, Suzuki, H, Shimizu, H, Toyoshima, H, Wakai, K, Tokudome, S, Ito, Y, Hashimoto, S, Kikuchi, S, Koizumi, A, Kawamura, T, Watanabe, Y, Miki, T, Date, C, Nose, T, Hayakawa, N, Yoshimura, T, Shibata, A, Okamoro, N, Shio, H, Ohno, Y, Kitagawa, T, Kuroki, T & Tajima, K 2005, 'Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer: Findings from the JACC Study', Journal of epidemiology, vol. 15, no. SUPPL. 2. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.15.S212

Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer : Findings from the JACC Study. / Sakata, Kiyomi; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Morioka, Seiji; Hashimoto, Tsutomu; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Mori, Mitsuru; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mikami, Haruo; Inaba, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Ito, Yoshinori; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kikuchi, Shogo; Koizumi, Akio; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Nose, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoro, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Kitagawa, Tomoyuki; Kuroki, Toshio; Tajima, Kazuo.

In: Journal of epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. SUPPL. 2, 14.10.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer

T2 - Findings from the JACC Study

AU - Sakata, Kiyomi

AU - Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu

AU - Morioka, Seiji

AU - Hashimoto, Tsutomu

AU - Takeshita, Tatsuya

AU - Tamakoshi, Akiko

AU - Mori, Mitsuru

AU - Motohashi, Yutaka

AU - Tsuji, Ichiro

AU - Nakamura, Yosikazu

AU - Iso, Hiroyasu

AU - Mikami, Haruo

AU - Inaba, Yutaka

AU - Suzuki, Hiroshi

AU - Shimizu, Hiroyuki

AU - Toyoshima, Hideaki

AU - Wakai, Kenji

AU - Tokudome, Shinkan

AU - Ito, Yoshinori

AU - Hashimoto, Shuji

AU - Kikuchi, Shogo

AU - Koizumi, Akio

AU - Kawamura, Takashi

AU - Watanabe, Yoshiyuki

AU - Miki, Tsuneharu

AU - Date, Chigusa

AU - Nose, Takayuki

AU - Hayakawa, Norihiko

AU - Yoshimura, Takesumi

AU - Shibata, Akira

AU - Okamoro, Naoyuki

AU - Shio, Hideo

AU - Ohno, Yoshiyuki

AU - Kitagawa, Tomoyuki

AU - Kuroki, Toshio

AU - Tajima, Kazuo

PY - 2005/10/14

Y1 - 2005/10/14

N2 - Background: Using a large-scale cohort of about 110,000 people established in 45 areas through-out Japan from 1988 through 1990, the study attempted to uncover the joint effects of combined smoking and alcohol intake on esophageal cancer mortality. Methods: A cohort established from 1988 through 1990 included 46,465 men and 64,327 women aged 40 years and older and younger than 80. The number of female smokers and drinkers was low, and women were excluded from the analysis for that reason. In addition, 308 people with histories of malignant neoplasm, and 3,579 with unclear smoking and drinking data were also excluded, resulting in 42,578 people available for analysis. A follow-up of these individuals was conducted until 1999. Cox proportional hazards model was used for the analysis. Results: The joint effects of number of cigarettes and amount of alcohol consumed per day were compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers or those consuming less than one unit of alcohol per day. An increased synergistic esophageal cancer mortality risk (3.88) for both smoking and drinking was observed for those smoking 20 cigarettes or less per day and drinking one unit of alcohol or more but less than three units per day, with the risk rising (6.30) for those smoking at least 21 cigarettes and drinking at least three units of alcohol per day. Even in non-smokers with increased alcohol consumption, and in non-drinkers or those drinking at most one drink per day with increased smoking, no increased risk was observed. Conclusions: In this cohort study of a Japanese population, increased esophageal cancer mortality risk was observed only when both factors of alcohol and tobacco intake were present simultaneously.

AB - Background: Using a large-scale cohort of about 110,000 people established in 45 areas through-out Japan from 1988 through 1990, the study attempted to uncover the joint effects of combined smoking and alcohol intake on esophageal cancer mortality. Methods: A cohort established from 1988 through 1990 included 46,465 men and 64,327 women aged 40 years and older and younger than 80. The number of female smokers and drinkers was low, and women were excluded from the analysis for that reason. In addition, 308 people with histories of malignant neoplasm, and 3,579 with unclear smoking and drinking data were also excluded, resulting in 42,578 people available for analysis. A follow-up of these individuals was conducted until 1999. Cox proportional hazards model was used for the analysis. Results: The joint effects of number of cigarettes and amount of alcohol consumed per day were compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers or those consuming less than one unit of alcohol per day. An increased synergistic esophageal cancer mortality risk (3.88) for both smoking and drinking was observed for those smoking 20 cigarettes or less per day and drinking one unit of alcohol or more but less than three units per day, with the risk rising (6.30) for those smoking at least 21 cigarettes and drinking at least three units of alcohol per day. Even in non-smokers with increased alcohol consumption, and in non-drinkers or those drinking at most one drink per day with increased smoking, no increased risk was observed. Conclusions: In this cohort study of a Japanese population, increased esophageal cancer mortality risk was observed only when both factors of alcohol and tobacco intake were present simultaneously.

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Sakata K, Hoshiyama Y, Morioka S, Hashimoto T, Takeshita T, Tamakoshi A et al. Smoking, alcohol drinking and esophageal cancer: Findings from the JACC Study. Journal of epidemiology. 2005 Oct 14;15(SUPPL. 2). https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.15.S212