Background: Multiple studies have shown cigarette smoking to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether smoking similarly increases the risk for progression of membranous nephropathy. Methods: This study used the Nagoya Nephrotic Syndrome Cohort Study (N-NSCS), including 171 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) from 10 nephrology centers in Japan. The dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and the outcomes were assessed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinically relevant factors. The primary outcome was a 30% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The secondary outcome was first complete remission (CR) of proteinuria. Results: During the observation period (median, 37 months; interquartile range, 16-71 months), 37 (21.6%) patients developed a 30% decline in eGFR and 2 (1.2%) progressed to ESRD. CR occurred in 103 (60.2%) patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 7.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.17- 19.7]), female sex (adjusted HR, 3.58 [95% CI, 1.87-8.00]), older age (adjusted HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.62] per 10 years), the number of cigarettes smoked daily (adjusted HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.23-2.09] per 10 cigarettes daily), and cumulative smoking of ≥40 pack-years (adjusted HR, 5.56 [95% CI, 2.17-14.6]) to be associated with a 30% decline in eGFR. However, smoking was not associated with CR. Conclusion: Smoking is a significant and dose-dependent risk factor for IMN progression. All patients with IMN who smoke should be encouraged to quit.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)