Smoking is a risk factor for the progression of idiopathic membranous nephropathy

Makoto Yamaguchi, Masahiko Ando, Ryohei Yamamoto, Shinichi Akiyama, Sawako Kato, Takayuki Katsuno, Tomoki Kosugi, Waichi Sato, Naotake Tsuboi, Yoshinari Yasuda, Masashi Mizuno, Yasuhiko Ito, Seiichi Matsuo, Shoichi Maruyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Multiple studies have shown cigarette smoking to be a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. However, it is unknown whether smoking similarly increases the risk for progression of membranous nephropathy. Methods: This study used the Nagoya Nephrotic Syndrome Cohort Study (N-NSCS), including 171 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) from 10 nephrology centers in Japan. The dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and the outcomes were assessed by using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for clinically relevant factors. The primary outcome was a 30% decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The secondary outcome was first complete remission (CR) of proteinuria. Results: During the observation period (median, 37 months; interquartile range, 16-71 months), 37 (21.6%) patients developed a 30% decline in eGFR and 2 (1.2%) progressed to ESRD. CR occurred in 103 (60.2%) patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models revealed current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 7.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.17- 19.7]), female sex (adjusted HR, 3.58 [95% CI, 1.87-8.00]), older age (adjusted HR, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.13-2.62] per 10 years), the number of cigarettes smoked daily (adjusted HR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.23-2.09] per 10 cigarettes daily), and cumulative smoking of ≥40 pack-years (adjusted HR, 5.56 [95% CI, 2.17-14.6]) to be associated with a 30% decline in eGFR. However, smoking was not associated with CR. Conclusion: Smoking is a significant and dose-dependent risk factor for IMN progression. All patients with IMN who smoke should be encouraged to quit.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere100835
JournalPloS one
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 25-06-2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


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