Hemolymph nodes (HLs) are unique lymph nodes, in that their lymphatic sinuses contain numerous erythrocytes. In this study, we compared the internal structure and immunologic function of HLs with those of ordinary lymph nodes (OLs) and the spleen. Electron microscopy revealed erythrocytes passing through the walls of blood vessels in the intermediate sinus area (IMSA) of a HL between expanded endothelial cell junctions. However, no direct communication was found between lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. Numerous carbon particles appeared in the IMSA of HLs on 5 days after intravenous carbon particle injection, while OLs lacked particle deposition. Immunohistochemical studies showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reached the IMSA of HLs and extravasated into medullary cords 4 hours after intravenous LPS injection, resulting in the appearance of more IgM-stained lymphocytes in the IMSA of HLs than in that of OLs on day 5. The ability of organs to produce antibodies was determined by counting the number of plaque forming colonies after intravenous injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The HLs antibody-producing ability was between that of OLs and the spleen. These results suggest that HLs possess functionally open blood vessels in the IMSA and their immunologic capability is between that of OLs and the spleen. These findings suggests that HLs are lymphoid organs that have characteristics between those of the OLs and the spleen, both ultrastructurally and functionally.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Nagoya journal of medical science|
|Publication status||Published - 11-1997|
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