Surgical Management for Systolic Anterior Motion (SAM) of the Mitral Valve in Obstructive Hypertrophic Myopathy

Akihiko Usui, Masato Mutsuga

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction can be created by the hypertrophic interventricular septum (IVS) as well as systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML). Sufficient septal myectomy is a fundamental surgical technique to treat LVOT obstruction, however, direct surgical management for SAM is another key aspect. Besides the hypertrophic IVS, mitral valve, subvalvular apparatus, and papillary muscle may play important role for SAM and several surgical techniques have been proposed to treat SAM in literature. In this review, each surgical technique is classified by the anatomical structure on which the surgical procedure is applied. The AML is the main surgical site and is applied with plication (vertical plication, resection–plication–release strategy), extension (the AML extension, transverse incision of the AML), sutured (edge-to-edge repair, anterior leaflet retention plasty), or traction (floating stitch, papillary muscle-to-anterior annulus stitches, paradoxical stitches, transposition of a directed chorda tendinea to the AML). Height reduction of the posterior mitral valve leaflet and papillary muscle reorientation are other techniques. We should understand theoretical aspects of each technique on correction of anatomical and functional abnormalities of the structure and should apply them under proper indication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-248
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Gastroenterology


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