Background: Tumor lysis syndrome is an oncological emergency triggered by the rapid release of intracellular materials from lysed malignant cells. Intensive chemotherapy is challenging for patients with severe renal dysfunction and a high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Sustained high-efficiency daily diafiltration using a mediator-adsorbing membrane (SHEDD-fA) could work not only as a renal replacement therapy, but also as a novel method to control intracellular materials, including cytokines and damage-associated molecular patterns. We aimed to describe two cases of patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma with a very high risk of tumor lysis syndrome who were successfully treated with a combination of chemotherapy and SHEDD-fA. Case presentation: The first case was of a 67-year-old man who was admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory failure and diagnosed with Burkitt’s lymphoma. Extremely high lactate dehydrogenase levels and anuria, indicating severe acute kidney injury, are considered to be associated with a very high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. SHEDD-fA was initiated prophylactically to prevent exacerbation of tumor lysis syndrome. To ensure the blood concentration of antitumor drugs, SHEDD-fA was stopped temporarily and restarted 6 h after the completion of chemotherapy. No tumor lysis syndrome-related complications were observed. The second case involved a 68-year-old man who was admitted to the intensive care unit due to exacerbation of Burkitt’s lymphoma complicated by severe pneumonia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The patient exhibited metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and anuria. SHEDD-fA was performed immediately. As in the first case, we temporarily discontinued SHEDD-fA before chemotherapy and restarted it 6 h after the completion of chemotherapy. No tumor lysis syndrome-associated complications were observed and renal function recovered. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and high-mobility group box-1 protein levels in the blood were lower on the outlet side than on the inlet side. Conclusions: SHEDD-fA allows safe and effective administration of chemotherapy in patients with severe renal dysfunction and a very high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Our findings indicate that blood purification modality may need to be selected according to tumor lysis syndrome severity.
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