Background/Aims: We investigated the effect of IL-1β and TNF-α polymorphisms, and its synergistic effect with age, gender and H. pylori status on the gastric pre-malignant condition. Methodology: IL-1β-31(T>C) and -511(C>T) and TNF-α-857 (C>T) polymorphisms were genotyped in 123 cancer free subjects. Degree of histological gastritis in both antrum and corpus, and extension of endoscopic gastric atrophy were also evaluated. Results: Significant associations were found between degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration (p=0.007) and atrophy (p=0.01) in the antrum with IL-1β-31(T>C) polymorphism, and degree of endoscopic gastric atrophy with both IL-1β-31(T>C), -511(C>T) polymorphisms (p=0.03, 0.04, respectively). When subjects were divided into the 3 groups according to the histological severity of gastric mucosal atrophy: the non-atrophic gastritis (NA) group (atrophy score=0 and metaplasia score=0), the severe atrophic gastritis (SA) group (atrophy score>=2 or metaplasia score>=2), and the mild atrophic gastritis (MA) group (all others), synergistic effect was found between numbers of 1L-Iß-31C, IL-1β-511T variant alleles with co-factors on the development of gastric atrophy in the antrum (gender + H. pylori + number of IL-1β-31C allele: p=0.001, age + gender + H. pylori + number of IL-1β-31C allele: p=0.0008, gender + H. pylori + number of IL-1β-511T allele: p=0.016, age + gender + H. pylori + number of IL-1β-511T allele: p=0.013), while such association was found for TNF-α-857 T allele in the antrum and all genotypes in the corpus. Conclusions: IL-1β-31C, IL-1β-511T variant alleles may accelerate gastric mucosal inflammation and atrophy, not only by themselves, but also through the interaction with co-factors.
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