We investigated whether cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS) facilitates the excitability of the ipsilateral soleus motoneuron pool in resting humans, and whether the facilitation is modulated by a task that promotes cerebellar activity. A test tibial nerve stimulus evoking the H-reflex from the right soleus muscle was delivered before or after conditioning C-TMS in prone individuals. The amplitude of the H-reflex was significantly increased at conditioning-test interstimulus intervals of 110, 120, and 130 ms. Furthermore, we revealed that this facilitation effect was inhibited while the individuals tapped their right index finger. These findings indicate that C-TMS facilitates spinal motoneuronal excitability with an ∼100ms latency in resting humans, and that this cerebellar spinal facilitation is modulated by a task that might increase cerebellar activity. Cerebellar spinal facilitation could thus be useful for assessing the excitability of the cerebellum, or the cerebellar output to spinal motoneurons.
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