Bolus texture is a key factor for safe swallowing in patients with dysphagia since an improper texture may result in aspiration and/or pharyngeal residue. This article discusses swallowing bolus texture from two key aspects: the textural change of solid food by mastication and the current standardized definition of food texture in Japan. When swallowing a liquid bolus, the texture is mostly maintained from ingestion to swallow onset. For solid food, however, the food is crushed by chewing and mixed with saliva before swallowing; the texture of the ingested food is modified to an easily swallowable form at swallow onset by mastication. Understanding the mechanism of mastication and its assessment are therefore important in deciding the proper diet for dysphagic patients. As standardized criteria for classifying the texture of food and liquid are essential as well, this report also describes the Japanese Dysphagia Diet 2013 that is commonly used as the standardized index for dysphagic diets in Japan.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics