The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection

Hitoshi Honda, Erik R. Dubberke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a growing concern and has a substantial impact on morbidity and mortality. Epidemiology of CDI has dramatically changed over the last decade. Diagnostic and treatment strategies are even more complicated given the wide variety of available diagnostic methods and the emergence of refractory or recurrent CDI. This review is intended to provide information on current CDI epidemiology and guidance for evidence-based diagnosis and management strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Various studies from the United States, Europe, and Canada revealed increased incidence of CDI since 2000. Although CDI has long been associated with healthcare settings, recent studies indicate it is more common in the community than previously recognized. For diagnostic strategies, newer testing methods, including nucleic acid amplification tests, have enhanced sensitivity compared with toxin testing, but at the expense of decreased specificity. New agents for treating CDI are being developed and higher quality data to support fecal microbiota transplantation for treating recurrent CDI are emerging. SUMMARY: CDI epidemiology continues to evolve. Prompt recognition and an evidence-based treatment approach is the key to successfully manage CDI. Further, studies on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to further improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-62
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Opinion in Gastroenterology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01-2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gastroenterology


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