The usefulness of distal protection devices is still controversial. Moreover, there is no report on thrombus evaluation by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for determining whether to use a distal protection device. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictor of filter no-reflow (FNR) by using OCT in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevated acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). We performed preinterventional OCT in 25 patients with STEMI who were undergoing primary PCI with Filtrap. FNR was defined as coronary flow decreasing to TIMI flow grade 0 after mechanical dilatation. FNR was observed in 13 cases (52%). In the comparisons between cases with or without the FNR, the stent length, lipid pool length, lipid pool + thrombus length, and lipid pool + thrombus index showed significant differences. In multivariate analysis, lipid pool + thrombus length was the only independent predictor of FNR (OR 1.438, 95% CI 1.001 - 2.064, P < .05). The optimal cut-off value of lipid pool + thrombus length for predicting FNR was 13.1 mm (AUC = 0.840, sensitivity 76.9%, specificity 75.0%). Moreover, when adding the evaluation of thrombus length to that of lipid pool length, the prediction accuracy of FNR further increased (IDI 0.14: 0.019-0.25, P = .023). The longitudinal length of the lipid pool plus thrombus was an independent predictor of FNR and the prediction accuracy improved by adding the thrombus to the lipid pool. These results might be useful for making intraoperative judgment about whether filter devices should be applied in primary PCI for STEMI.
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