The differential heritability of social adjustment by sex

Chisato Hayashi, Soshiro Ogata, Haruka Tanaka, Kazuo Hayakawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sex differences in social adjustment are frequently observed; however, there has been very little research on adaptability in the individual and social domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex difference in social abilities, such as high self-appeal, sociability, school adaptation, and home adaptation between school-age males and females. The sample for this study included both same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs: a total of 467 twin pairs. We classified them into three groups: a group of those in lower classes of elementary school, a group of those in higher classes of elementary school, and a group of those in junior high school. The heritability of school adaptation was estimated to be 95% in males and 54% in females in the junior high school group. The full sex-limitation model showed a better fit in this group, and this means that a qualitative genetic difference exists. For school adaptation, there was no sex difference in lower elementary school classes; however, a quantitative difference appeared in higher classes of elementary school. Moreover, a qualitative difference appeared in junior high school. From this research, it became clear that sex differences in heritability exist for school adaptation, and there was a marked increase from the elementary school children to the junior high school children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number621
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 02-01-2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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