Background and Aim: The inflammatory response accelerates early liver regeneration after liver injury and resection. Recent studies have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) suppresses the activation of inflammatory cells and induces immune tolerance. In this study, we examined the role of IDO1 in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx). Methods: WT or IDO1-knockout (IDO1-KO) mice received 70% PHx. The liver-body weight ratio after PHx was measured and hepatocyte growth was assessed by immunostaining. The expression of cell cycle genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the liver was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, 1-methyl-dl-tryptophan (1-MT), which is an IDO1 inhibitory agent, was given to WT mice and the liver-body weight ratio was measured after PHx. Results: The liver-body weight ratio was significantly increased in IDO1-KO mice compared with that in WT mice after PHx. More Ki-67-positive cells were present in IDO1-KO mice than in WT mice after PHx. The expression of cell cycle genes (cyclin D1, cyclin E) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) was up-regulated in the remnant liver of IDO1-KO mice compared with WT mice. Moreover, treatment with 1-MT promoted liver regeneration. Conclusion: IDO1 deficiency promoted early liver regeneration after PHx, indicating that IDO1 suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines and subsequently inhibits hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration.
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