The management of hydatidiform mole (HM) and the incidence of post-molar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) in Vietnam has not been reported to date. This study aimed to study the incidence of HM and post-molar GTN and identify factors associated with post-molar GTN at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam. Five hundred and eighty-four patients who were treated for HM at Tu Du Hospital between January and December 2010 were included in this study. The mean age and gestational age at the first evacuation were 28.8 years old and 11.0 weeks, respectively. After the initial evacuation and pathological examination, 87 patients who were older than 40 or did not wish to have children underwent a hysterectomy, while the others underwent second curettage. All 472 patients who had human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ≥ 100,000 IU/L before treatment received one cycle of methotrexate with folinic acid as prophylactic chemotherapy. The incidence of HM was 11.1 per 1,000 deliveries; 47 patients (8.0%) developed post-molar GTN. Gestational week, hCG level at one week after the first evacuation, and pathological remnants were significantly associated with the development of post-molar GTN. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic chemotherapy and hysterectomy may be useful for high-risk HM patients to reduce post-molar GTN in settings in which the risk of post-molar GTN and loss to follow-up after HM are greater and hCG measurements and appropriate GTN treatments are unavailable. However, future studies on the long-term outcomes and side effects of prophylactic therapies on HM are required.
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